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Momodou



Denmark
10540 Posts

Posted - 10 Sep 2021 :  16:19:22  Show Profile Send Momodou a Private Message  Reply with Quote
GAMBIA-L Digest 102

Topics covered in this issue include:

1) Casamance rebels warn of Guinea-Bissau border buildup
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
2) New Member
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
3) Re: *H*A*P*P*Y* N*E*W* *Y*E*A*R*
by Abdou O Gibba <Abdou.Gibba@smr.uib.no>
4) New Address
by amadou.kabir.njie@nsw.no
5) Re: *H*A*P*P*Y* N*E*W* *Y*E*A*R*
by "janko.fofana@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
6) Re: forwarded posting from Dr. Nyang
by Sulayman Nyang <nyang@cldc.howard.edu>
7) Re: Forwarded posting from Dr Sulayman Nyang
by Sulayman Nyang <nyang@cldc.howard.edu>
8) Fwd: Shipping a container to Gambia
by Andy Lyons <alyons@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu>
9) Please subscribe
by Mbk007 <Mbk007@aol.com>
10) Re: Shipping a container to Gambia
by TSaidy1050 <TSaidy1050@aol.com>
11) Re: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
by Gunjur <Gunjur@aol.com>
12) RA & Postdoc
by "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
13) Book Drive
by Ancha Bala-Gaye u <bala7500@mach1.wlu.ca>
14) Re: Shipping a container to Gambia
by Paul <bgibba@interlog.com>
15) NEW MEMEBER
by MJagana <MJagana@aol.com>
16) SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
by =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
17) help
by Tor Blaha <blaha@online.no>
18) unsubscribe
by "Jattanjie solfa" <abene@hotmail.com>
19) Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
by habib <hghanim@erols.com>
20) help
by Ba-Musa Ceesay <Ba-Musa.Ceesay@Oslo.Norad.telemax.no>
21) Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
by "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
22) Gambia Education Support Organization - plan for approval
by "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
23) Gambia Education Support organization - Document for approval
by "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
24) Gambia Education Support organization
by "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
25) Unscribe Robertas@erols.com
by "Roberta S. Schaefer" <robertas@erols.com>
26) IS IT IN OUR NATURE? - PART 1
by "Momodou S Sidibeh" <momodou.sidibeh@stockholm.mail.telia.com>
27) Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
by Fafa Sanyang <fsanyang@is2.dal.ca>
28) Re: New member
by "pmj@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
29) conference
by "latjor ndow" <latjor@hotmail.com>
30) Clinton To Tour Nine African States.
by mmjeng@image.dk
31) Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
by "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
32) Re: IS IT IN OUR NATURE? - PART 1
by "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
33) Traveling overland, Banjul-Bamako
by David Gilden <dgilden@tiac.net>
34) fw - pass it on
by Ceesay Soffie <Ceesay_Soffie@prc.com>
35) Finally, a Gambian paper on the net.
by "tgr@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
36) Re: fw - pass it on
by habib <hghanim@erols.com>
37) Re: Finally, a Gambian paper on the net.
by "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
38) Re: Gambia and The TeleCentres!
by Sarian Loum <Sarian.Loum@Corp.Sun.COM>
39) Re: Gambia and The TeleCentres!
by YAIKAH MARIE JENG <yjeng@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu>
40) Re: Gambian Online papers
by "tgr@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
41) Re: conference
by Tamsir Mbai <mba4224@etbu.edu>
42) Re: New member
by RABANI <RABANI@aol.com>
43) Re: fw - pass it on
by "Katim S. Touray" <dekat@itis.com>
44) Re: Gambian Online papers
by Tamsir Mbai <mba4224@etbu.edu>
45) RE: Friendship letter
by Keretha Cash <kcash@RBVDNR.com>
46) RE Kartong/Gunjur
by "BOJANG,BUBA" <BBOJANG@MUSIC.TRANSY.EDU>
47) Re: Gambian Online papers
by "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
48) Re: RE Kartong/Gunjur
by BobbySil <BobbySil@aol.com>
49) Introduction
by LaminLams.Bojang@fco.mh.se (LaminLams Bojang)
50) New Member
by Malick Jagne <jagnem@db.erau.edu>
51) New Members
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
52) Re: SUBSCRIBE GAMBIA-L Lamin Bojang
by LBojang <LBojang@aol.com>
53) Greetings
by mjallow@st6000.sct.edu (Modou Jallow)

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Sun, 4 Jan 1998 21:51:18 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Casamance rebels warn of Guinea-Bissau border buildup
Message-ID: <19980104205149.AAD67672@momodou>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT

DAKAR, Jan 4 (AFP) - Rebels in the southern Senegalese province of
Casamance warned Sunday that Guinea-Bissau troops were massing at the
border ahead of an attack on rebel bases.
In a communique sent from Paris, the separatist Movement of
Democratic Forces of Casamance (MFDC) said the troops buildup was part
of "a plot fomented by Senegal and Guinea-Bissau."
Some 3,000 Guinea-Bissau soldiers have been massed at the border
since December 26, while 4.000 Senegalese soldiers were on standby
north of the border in preparation for an attack, the MFDC said.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
The rest of the news can be found in the following Newsgroups:
clari.world.africa.western,clari.news.conflict.misc,
clari.world.military

Or The Bush List <Gampatriots>

------------------------------

Date: Sun, 4 Jan 1998 21:51:19 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: New Member
Message-ID: <19980104205149.AAC67672@momodou>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT

Greetings,
LaminLams Bojang has been added to the Bantaba. Welcome to Gambia-l
Mr. Bojang. You can send a brief introduction to:
gambia-l@u.washington.edu


Regards,
Momodou Camara

*** http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara
"To make friends is easy, just use pure ingredients"***

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 05 Jan 1998 08:43:55 +0000
From: Abdou O Gibba <Abdou.Gibba@smr.uib.no>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: *H*A*P*P*Y* N*E*W* *Y*E*A*R*
Message-ID: <2.2.32.19980105084355.0072e754@alf.uib.no>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Dear Bass, Momodou Camara and Paul Gibba,

Thanks to you all. The best of NEW YEAR's wishes to you and your families.

Greetings from
Abdou Oujimai & Family.



------------------------------

Date: Mon, 05 Jan 1998 08:50:00 +0100
From: amadou.kabir.njie@nsw.no
To: Gambia-L@u.washington.edu
Subject: New Address
Message-ID: <34b093fd.narud@relay.nsw.no>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1; name=body.txt

Hello everyone,

Happy New Year to all list member!!!

Can the list mamagers please resubscribe me at =

Amadou.Kabir.Njie@Aviaplan.no
and delete my current address at Amadou.Kabir.Njie@nsw.no.

Thanks

A. Kabir Njie =



---------------------------------------------------------------------
amadou.kabir.njie@nsw.no
Narud Stokke Wiig AS
R=E5dhusgt. 27
N-0158 OSLO
NORWAY
Tel: +47 22 33 06 70
Fax: +47 22 41 45 01
---------------------------------------------------------------------


------------------------------

Date: Mon, 5 Jan 1998 11:15:25 -0000
From: "janko.fofana@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: *H*A*P*P*Y* N*E*W* *Y*E*A*R*
Message-ID: <B0000031768@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sent by "Janko Fofana" <janko.fofana@commit.gm>
via Commit


>From Janko S.B. Fofana

This is to add my prayers to all those who are wishing list contributors
all the best in 1998. I hope and pray that 1998 will bring us peace, joy
and all that we wish for ourselves. To those studying, may your grades be
better than all your previous ones and those working let 1998 bring you
promotion and recognition in your workplace. For some of us in the Gambia,
we pray that our nation will see more development and plenty of food for
our farmers. Let the rainy season (starting in May/June) bring us bumper
harvest for our farmers. It is nice to be at home and helping your people.
I hope we will be joined by more intellectuals to play our individuals as
well as collective roles in our nation's development. We need your
expertise here. This is Home and will ever remain as home and your presence
can make a big difference, small as it may be.

Again I say thanks to all list contributors and hope that we will keep
sharing our good ideas and experiences through this medium. Specia regards
to Malanding Jaiteh, Katim Toure and Sainey Keita. It is nice to hear from
all you after missing you for sometime. If anybody cares, this is my E-Mail
for any private message.

Janko Fofana
E-Mail : Janko.Fofana@commit.gm


Thanks and bye for now.





----------
> From: Abdou O Gibba <Abdou.Gibba@smr.uib.no>
> To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
<gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> Subject: Re: *H*A*P*P*Y* N*E*W* *Y*E*A*R*
> Date: Monday, January 05, 1998 8:43 AM
>
> Dear Bass, Momodou Camara and Paul Gibba,
>
> Thanks to you all. The best of NEW YEAR's wishes to you and your
families.
>
> Greetings from
> Abdou Oujimai & Family.
>
>
>


------------------------------

Date: Mon, 5 Jan 1998 16:04:12 -0500 (EST)
From: Sulayman Nyang <nyang@cldc.howard.edu>
To: Nyang Njie <st0021@student-mail.jsu.edu>
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>, ;
Subject: Re: forwarded posting from Dr. Nyang
Message-ID: <Pine.LNX.3.95.980105160058.29905B-100000@jubilee.cldc.howard.edu>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

From: Nyang@cldc.howard.edu
Thanks a lot for your comments. I believe all of us will aceept the fact
that slavery was evil. We may disagree as to the degree of involvement of
the African peoples. One thing that we cannot deny is that millions of
Africans could not have left the continent without African collaboration.
I share your analysis of the North African slave experience. It certainly
predated the transatlantic one. Let us continue to dialogue.

On Tue, 16 Dec 1997, Nyang Njie wrote:

> The capture, sale, and use of slaves on the African continent had a long
> history. The ancient Egyptians enslaved people;p slavery was an important
> form of labor in the Roman Empire and in the Muslim states. Africans from
> south of the Sahara were exported to North Africa and to the Middle East
> beginning with the arrival of Muslim traders in these regions. Thus, the
> Europeans who came later continued a well-established tradition of selling
> African as human cargo to plantations in the new world, but this does not
> justify the existence of slavery. Personally, I believe that slavery
> existed in part because it was tolerated by some of the rulers of that
> time.
> Tamsir I agree with you to an extent, but also we have to put aside our
> emotions for a minute and rationalize that slavery would not have been
> as sucessful as it was without the help of Africans. First of all most of
> the slaves captured were from the interior of Africa, and most of the
> Europeans could not survive in the heartland because they were susceptible
> to diseases that the Africans were immune to. Therefore this created
> middle men who profited from the capturing and transporting of
> slaves to the coast. Also the Africans contributed in slavery because of
> our naivety and feeling of complacency. We were always open to strangers
> and if we had learned our lessons from the past such things as slavery
> could have been avoided. Africa's greatest empires were destroyed and
> faced out by outsiders. The Songhai empire was invaded by the Morrocans,
> Ghana empire by the Almoravids, Egypt by the Hyksos and the Romans. We
> have allowed history to repeat it self time and time again. I don't think
> that we are equally responsible for slavery as the Europeans, but we
> (Africans) should learn how to take responsibility for our actions.
>
> Regardless which position is deemed appropriate the historical record
> shows that the new world could not have developed without the wealth that
> African slave labor produced for the various European nation states that
> were involved in the "slave trade." Prior to the introduction of Africans
> into the new world as slave labor the European colonial enterprises were
> unprofitable.
>
> Jere Jef:
> Daddy Njie.
>
> *************************************************
> ** Until the lions have their own historians, **
> ** the tale of the hunt **
> ** will always glorify the hunter. **
> *************************************************
>


------------------------------

Date: Mon, 5 Jan 1998 16:26:36 -0500 (EST)
From: Sulayman Nyang <nyang@cldc.howard.edu>
To: Tamsir Mbai <mba4224@etbu.edu>
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>, ;
Subject: Re: Forwarded posting from Dr Sulayman Nyang
Message-ID: <Pine.LNX.3.95.980105161841.29905E-100000@jubilee.cldc.howard.edu>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

From:nyang@cldc.howard.edu
Thanks for your comments on my brief piece on the slavery issue. I
strongly believe that you are entitle to your opinions and interpretations
of the African past as any other African writing or thinking about it. The
issue is sensitive. But regardless of how we feel about it, the fact
remains that slavery could not have taken place without African
connivance.As I stated in my original piece, not all Africans can be held
responsible.This however does not change the picture very much. But since
the issue has not been settled we might as well continue to debate it
while doing more and more research about it. The Europeans certainly had
the upper hand and in the end, they wrote much of the history. There is
what some historians called "victor's justice." But let us not forget the
fact that there was a movement within the Euro-American world that stood
for abolitionism. Once again , I thank you for sharing your views. Let us
keep the dialogue and do it patiently and politely.Peace
Salaam, Shalom.
Sulayman S. Nyang

On Mon, 15 Dec 1997, Tamsir Mbai wrote:

> Gambia-l,
> By the time you finish reading through this article, you would have
> been driven to one of two extreme poles. You either find yourself at the
> pole where the inhabitants claim that this article is nothing more than a
> publicity stunt from an ignorant author in an attempt to challenge the
> authority of a well respected scholar, or you may find yourself at the other
> pole whose inhabitants give the author the benefit of the doubt and each say
> to him/herself that "i think the author has a point and maybe everyone
> should just ponder his/her position a little bit more." Whatever pole you
> are driven to does not bother me at all, but i would appreciate it if you
> were driven to the latter pole.
> I have fought very hard with my inner self not to respond to the
> original article, but i lost the battle over the weekend when my conscience
> convinced me that i should say how i feel about it. I start by saying that i
> have heard a lot about Dr Sulayman Nyang, starting from when i was in The
> Gambia six years ago. I must also add that of all the things i have heard
> about the respected doctor, everything was positive, complimentary,
> encouraging, and very uplifting. Consequently, i do not wish to undermine or
> tarnish in any way that well-established reputation. However, i beg to
> differ with one point of his analysis of the transatlantic Slave trade. I
> would not have responded had that point been made on a subliminal level. In
> my opinion, the fact that the point was cited in an equation that attempted
> to equally ration the responsibility of the slave trade between Africans and
> people of European descent shows that it bears utmost importance in the
> doctor's analysis. If that is not the case, then at least that point is
> still the most radical. Correct me if i am wrong, Dr Nyang.
> When i first started college, i had an opportunity in 1993 to defend
> this position that i am about to address, and i must say that my position
> hasn't changed during that four year span. That is precisely the reason why
> i was shocked when i read Dr Nyang's article in which he wrote:
> "The kind of slavery American historians call "the peculiar
> institution" in American history was unknown in pre-colonial Africa.
> However, I should hasten to add that Africans became partners in the traffic
> in human cargo soon after the concept of comodified slavery was introduced.
> Without African players there could not have developed this massive
> transplantation of millions from the continent to the Americas.This is why
> American whites, Europeans and continental
> Africans owe an apology to all blacks and persons of mixed parentage in
> the Americas."
> I am not a history student nor am i a historian, but my reading on
> issues pertaining to Africa and the Western world has brought me to the sad
> conclusion that when it comes to these issues, the African MUST view the
> western opinion with some level of cynicism. (To the benevolent friends of
> gambia-l who are of European descent, excuse my flagrant generalization. My
> people and me have experienced a painful history, and i cannot but reminisce
> on what could have been. I don't think you will agree, but i hope you
> understand.)
> Throughout history and in every war, the victor's point of view has
> been the medium through which the accounts of the battles and the war are
> narrated to the rest of the world. The losers are simply relegated as mere
> observers and sometimes they are even made to have been guilty of causing
> the war or of deserving the fate that befell them. The Atlantic slave trade
> is NO EXCEPTION to this tacit international law. Here we have to note that
> most accounts of the slave trade have been presented by mainly white
> observers/historians from Europe or the Americas. Because of the horrendous
> nature of crimes committed against Africans during and after the slave
> trade, it should not be any surprise that these mainly white analysts are
> now trying to shift the blame or responsibility from themselves to the
> Africans. This is a typical case of "blame the victim for his ill-fate." (I
> am not saying that Dr Nyang is white, but his position is mostly championed
> by white observers/historians.) It is because of this ill-conceived strategy
> by the perpetrators of the slave trade that i think it is very inappropriate
> for any black person to champion their position. The situation is even made
> worse and very DANGEROUS i add, when that banner is being waved by one of
> our best minds in the person of Dr Nyang who commands a large following.
> I do not dispute that African kings did sell some of their brothers
> and sisters into slavery. Nor do i disagree that one must accept
> responsibility for one's actions. My problem stems from the fact that Dr
> Nyang is putting "American whites, Europeans and continental Africans" on
> the same side of the equation, each bearing the same degree of
> responsibility in terms of apologizing to "all blacks and persons of mixed
> parentage in the Americas." That is not fair to black Africans. Why? Because
> even though Africans sold other Africans, that aspect of the slave trade did
> not start until very late into the transAtlantic slave trade. I hate the
> very notion of SLAVE TRADE. It never started as a trade, rather, the
> INVADERS sailed thousands of miles across the Atlantic, used their guns and
> rifles to terrorize Africans, kidnapped, raped, and murdered our
> foreparents, and in their attempt to justify their atrocities, they came up
> with the term SLAVE TRADE to make it appear as if though Africans were equal
> partners in this holocaust. Did not some Jews report other Jews in exchange
> for sanctuary during Hitler's WW2? ABSOLUTELY!! Do you hear anybody ask them
> to take responsibility on equal footing with their Nazi exterminators? Of
> course not!! Why? The answer is obvious. They are Whites!! Gambia-l, do you
> see where i'm headed with this argument? I'm sure you do, so be patient please.
> Finally, the context of the Africans' involvement in SLAVERY (i
> refuse to call it the SLAVE TRADE from now onwards) has to be addressed to
> justify my position. With guns and rifles possessed by the invaders against
> inferior tools of warfare possessed by the Africans, the option, or rather
> the ULTIMATUM was very clear. African kings had to sell some of their people
> and get something in return to help in the rebuilding process resulting from
> lost manpower/labour. The devil's alternative was to fight and be killed or
> captured and sent to slavery anyway. So we see that it was a prudent choice
> for the African kings to choose the option they did. At the same time, we
> have to mention that some did choose to fight, and they did so to the bitter
> end. The fight continued deep into captivity in the western hemisphere as
> evidenced by the mutiny on board the Spanish ship "La Amistad" in 1839,
> which is currently a subject of great controversy here in America.
> I conclude by saying that i hold no African responsible for slavery.
> I contend that had the Europeans and Americans not gone to Africa, then
> there would not have been any slavery to the magnitude that we experienced.
> As self appointed Special Prosecutor for Africa, i herewith indict the
> western perpetrators of slavery. On the other hand, as both Judge and Jury
> of this Special Prosecution, i convict the west to eternal pillory and their
> sentence must start with an apology to Africa for crimes committed during
> and after slavery. About two months ago, the Catholic Church offered an
> official apology to the Jews for not doing anything against Hitler's
> holocaust. Why then can't they do the same thing about the holocaust
> suffered by Africans? Again, the answer is obvious. I therefore charge the
> religious denominations with incest and rape of African resources. I better
> shut up 'cos i'm beginning to sound much like MUTABARUKA in "The People's
> Court."
> Dr Nyang, even though i am not qualified to make this assessment
> regarding the rest of your analysis on slavery, i humbly beg to say thank
> you very much for a thorough and very informative article. I must admit that
> i have never thought about slavery in Africa in the context that you
> espoused upon in dealing with the subject matter. Your elaborate views for
> or against my position on who should bear responsibility will also be
> greatly appreciated. Thanks again. Much respect!!!
> It's been a pleasure Gambia-l. Thanx for your attention. Peace!!!!!
>
> It's Tamsir.
>


------------------------------

Date: Mon, 05 Jan 1998 23:18:58 -0500
From: Andy Lyons <alyons@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Fwd: Shipping a container to Gambia
Message-ID: <2.2.16.19980106041858.2d5754c0@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

The person below posted a message on The Gambia Resource Page which I
thought might interest some people on this list:

>
>A. Prox has left a comment on the holiday experiences message board.
>
>Here is the new entry:
>A. Prox
>Hamburg, Germany
>We are preparing for a longer stay in Gambia probably
>for 3 to 6 month starting Feb 1998. Who could help us
>with adresses for housing? We would like to rent a
>small place. What about pirces?
>
>Please send information to anprox@metronet.de. Thanks.
>
>
>As well we are planing to send some materials from
>Germany to Gambia by Container. If there is anybody
>who would like to participate in sharing this Container
>please contact me.

===============================================================
Andy Lyons The Gambia Resource Page
alyons@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu http://grove.ufl.edu/~alyons
===============================================================


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 6 Jan 1998 02:05:24 EST
From: Mbk007 <Mbk007@aol.com>
To: Gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Please subscribe
Message-ID: <aa6a0e19.34b1d7b6@aol.com>
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit

Can you please subscribe my brother Morro Krubally to the list? His address is
jamba@cyberramp.net

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 6 Jan 1998 03:57:02 EST
From: TSaidy1050 <TSaidy1050@aol.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: alyons@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu (Andy Lyons)
Subject: Re: Shipping a container to Gambia
Message-ID: <e61c7200.34b1f1e0@aol.com>
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit

I could assist in locating a place for you to stay. I would, however, need
more information from you. I would need the answers to following:

1. How long are you staying?
2. Do you need a furnished or unfurnished house?
3. Do want a compound of your own or to share the compound with others?
4. What part of the Greater Banjul Area do you prefer?
5. How many bedrooms (two, three, or four)?
6. Does it make a difference if the master bedroom comes bath or not?
7. Do you need a garage for a car?

These are some questions that need to be answered. Some land lords would asked
for a year's rent in advance.

Looking forward to hear from you.

PEACE

TOMBONG SAIDY

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 6 Jan 1998 10:32:47 EST
From: Gunjur <Gunjur@aol.com>
To: kolls567@qatar.net.qa, Gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
Message-ID: <1dc99414.34b24ea0@aol.com>
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit

This is a very devastating report, to say the least. On recent visits to
Gambia, l have noticed that water has come right up to the roadside on the
Banjul/Serekunda road.There is a point where it looks like it is just a matter
of time before the water will cut off the connection between Banjul and the
Kombos. I am outraged at the amount of sand mining going on, and especially at
the thought of this operation in the Kartong area. The Gunjur/Kartong beach
areas are some of the most beautiful beaches in the World.
There is hardly anymore beach front in the area running from Bakau
Garage/fruit and vegetable market to the area just past Kairaba avenue in
Fajara. During high tide, the water comes right up to where the sand ended and
the walkway into town begins. Without immediate and urgent attention folks,
our country will be under the sea in the very near future.
PERHAPS MR. TOMBONG SAIDY CAN UPDATE US AS TO THE GOVERNMENT'S PLAN VIS A VIS
THIS VERY URGENT SITUATION.

Jabou.




In a message dated 1/5/98 2:55:39 AM, you wrote:

<<

The material that follows has been provided by Gemini News Service

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

----



SANDS OF TIME ARE RUNNING OUT FOR GAMBIAN BEACHES

The Gambia is shrinking, one grain of sand at a time. Gemini News Service

reports how the hungry Atlantic Ocean and a recent building boom have

combined to threaten the country's coastline, drinking water and important

tourist trade.

By Rosemary Long, a British freelance journalist who lives in The Gambia.



----------------------------------------------------------------------------

----

The Gambia, among the tiniest countries in Africa, gets smaller every day.

Even the bones of its ancestors are literally being swallowed up by the sea.

A desperate attempt has begun to shore up the vital stretch of coastline

that runs from one side of The Gambia's only stretch of dual carriageway to

its island capital of Banjul. The focal point, 500 metres long, is centred

on the Muslim graveyard which for years has been crumbling into the sea -

sending the remains of loved ones, in some cases, tumbling into the teeming

Atlantic waves.

Local people, exhorted by the Imams, gathered an impressive D250,000 towards

a reclamation effort for which the total cost will be D2.5 million. On the

launch day prayers were said at the beautiful but blemished site, and sea

eagles, terns and gulls cried out like the souls of the dead. Massive

boulders in steel boxes will be lowered along the graveside coastline. But

that leaves another 30 kilometres of The Gambia's coastline still at risk

making it - as one observer said - a case of sticking a finger in a dyke

while floods pour through on either side. A United Nations Environmental

Programme report considers The Gambia one of the world's 10 most vulnerable

countries for a rise in sea levels.

A scientific analysis of the situation shows that this could mean anything

from a three per cent loss of land (if sea level rises 50 cm) to a loss of

seven per cent of land (with a sea level rise of 150 cm) over the next 15

years. Swamp rice cultivation areas, herbaceous steppes and grass savanna

would suffer most - with up to 60 per cent land losses. There would also be

a dramatic decrease in swamp cultivation, increased saltwater intrusion, a

"drowning" of mangrove forests and extra sedimentation on the river bed.

Environmentalist Geir Tyldum anticipates that Banjul - already two metres

below sea level - could be largely under water by the year 2000. Salt water

intrusion could affect crops and cattle. Supplies of fresh drinking water in

heavily-populated areas could be at risk. The Gambia barely covers 10,000

square kilometres of land and the population in the coastal urban areas is

soaring.

Population expert Mary Fowlis Yamuah reveals that Kombo St Mary, the

division which includes much of the residential, tourist, business and

commerce areas had fewer than 4,000 people in 1973. By 1993 the figure was

more than 228,000. Nearby Western Division has increased its population by

more than 70 per cent in 10 years.

The ground under their feet is in danger of being eaten away. The Palm Grove

Hotel had its bar washed away a few years ago. Radio Syd, one of the

country's two commercial radio stations, and a local Boy Scouts office have

both suffered damage. Beaches along the prime tourist area of Bakau grow

narrower every year. Where there were wide stretches of sand are now craggy

outcroppings. A fisheries project in Bakau now includes a solid concrete

slab wall to stop a neighbouring mission house and clinic from tumbling down

on top of the fishery's new freezing and processing plants. Local women

complain of water flooding the smoking houses where fish is cured for sale.

"Sometimes we are ankle-deep in water and cannot smoke our fish," said one

woman. Further south is the top tourist beach flanking the main hotels and

sweeping spectacularly down to nearby fishing villages. There, too, the sand

is being swallowed.

The predator is not just the ever-hungry Atlantic Ocean. Sand-mining has

been adding to the despoliation of the shoreline. In the past five years it

has increased dramatically, with a rapid rise in the use of concrete to

build houses and a series of big government projects. A beach which once

sloped almost imperceptibly towards the water from the largest hotels and

valuable Bijilo Forest Park, now slopes sharply - with new drops at every

spring tide. The mining was moved from the prime hotel areas down to the

picturesque area between Bijilo and Brufut villages, where dark grey mud has

replaced large tracts of golden sand.

The previous government of Sir Dawda Jawara endlessly promised to "look at"

the situation, and for a while, limited the number of truckloads to 50 per

day. Since the military government of Yahya Jammeh took over last July the

situation has deteriorated, with no apparent attempt to limit the

destruction. Now some 200 truckloads are said to be taken daily, with

drivers thundering through peaceful village and bush areas at the dead of

night in order to avoid paying the council tax on their mining, which

applies only during working hours. Tourists and columnists have often

written to the local papers about how their pleasant beach walks are

hampered by roaring, smoking lorries. Plans are now said to be afoot to move

the sand-mining to Kartong, a gloriously unspoiled area in the most southern

of the country adjacent to the Senegalese border, but some conservationists

have called for it to be kept as an area of natural beauty.

The UN and the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources are studying

the situation, considering alternative building materials and recommending

more tree-planting to hold the land.



----------------------------------------------------------------------------

----

Copyright: News-Scan International Ltd 28/7

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

----

Gemini News Service Home Page

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

----







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Sendmail It's now Mon, 5 Jan 1998 10:36:22 -0300)
id KAA12964; Mon, 5 Jan 1998 10:36:22 -0300
From: "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: <gampatriots@Corp.Sun.COM>
Subject: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
Date: Mon, 5 Jan 1998 10:39:24 +0300
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>>


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 6 Jan 1998 12:05:36 -0500 (EST)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: RA & Postdoc
Message-ID: <199801061705.MAA04753@aspen.ffr.mtu.edu>


Folks, some of you might want to get this.

Malanding jaiteh

----- Begin Included Message -----

>From jiq@mtu.edu Tue Jan 6 10:17:50 1998
X-Sender: jiq@141.219.149.237
Date: Tue, 06 Jan 1998 10:18:52 -0500
To: jiq@mtu.edu, scsaunde@mtu.edu, bosong@mtu.edu, kdbrosof@mtu.edu,
mrudnick@mtu.edu, msjaiteh@mtu.edu, lbgerdes@mtu.edu
From: Jiquan Chen <jiq@mtu.edu>
Subject: RA & Postdoc
Cc: mfjurgen@mtu.edu, gdmroz@mtu.edu, kspregit@mtu.edu, jmglime@mtu.edu,
mrgale@mtu.edu
Mime-Version: 1.0

Dear all: Please pass the following ad around. Jiquan

Graduate Assistantships (MS or PhD) and a post doctoral research associate
are available for 3 years. Successful candidates will participate in the
landscape ecology group studying vegetation, microclimate, and soil changes
in managed forest ecosystems and landscapes. Work includes extensive field
data collection, analysis, and publication. Quantitative skills
(statistics and GIS), enthusiasm for scientific research, and dedication to
the research project are preferred. Please send CV or resume, names of
references, and transcripts to Dr. Jiquan Chen, School of Forestry and Wood
Products, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931.
Email:jiq@mtu.edu, Phone: (906) 487-3432.


----- End Included Message -----


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 6 Jan 1998 21:46:19 -0500 (EST)
From: Ancha Bala-Gaye u <bala7500@mach1.wlu.ca>
To: Gambia <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Book Drive
Message-ID: <Pine.3.89.9801062106.A23108-0100000@mach1.wlu.ca>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII


I remember that not too long ago there was some talk about a book drive.
I'm not sure what the situation is ie is there a group of people
coordinating this????
I guess what I want to know is how will the process of distributing the
books take place???? ie how will you decide who'll receive the books to
be donated??? Considering that most of us have our University books, if
these are donated, will they be going to the University library at home, if
there is one, the Teachers College if the university doesn't have a
library yet, the library in Banjul by Gambia High School cause more
students will have access to them?????? I guess these questions will be
more important if this is a one time deal.Also, are the books being sent,
being sent on the hope that they'll be useful, or are there
specific types of books, at specific school levels being sent????
Any answers?? or are such questions already being worked out????
Ancha.

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 06 Jan 1998 23:19:59 -0800
From: Paul <bgibba@interlog.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu, GAMBIA-L:
Subject: Re: Shipping a container to Gambia
Message-ID: <3.0.2.32.19980106231959.0068f7e0@mail.interlog.com>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"


Hi! Tombong,
I sent a note through your private e-mail address but I did not hear from
you again. Have you received it? Let me know so that we can take it from
there. Have a nice day.
Bakary P. Gibba.

At 03:57 AM 1/6/98 EST, TSaidy1050 wrote:
> I could assist in locating a place for you to stay. I would, however, need
>more information from you. I would need the answers to following:
>
>1. How long are you staying?
>2. Do you need a furnished or unfurnished house?
>3. Do want a compound of your own or to share the compound with others?
>4. What part of the Greater Banjul Area do you prefer?
>5. How many bedrooms (two, three, or four)?
>6. Does it make a difference if the master bedroom comes bath or not?
>7. Do you need a garage for a car?
>
>These are some questions that need to be answered. Some land lords would
asked
>for a year's rent in advance.
>
>Looking forward to hear from you.
>
>PEACE
>
>TOMBONG SAIDY
>
>

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 00:29:45 EST
From: MJagana <MJagana@aol.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: NEW MEMEBER
Message-ID: <1afde6ae.34b312ca@aol.com>
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit



Dear List Managers,

Kindly add Pa Sallah to the list Email address Gamsal@aol.com

thank you

Jagana

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 09:49:26 +0100
From: =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
Message-ID: <9B236DF9AF96CF11A5C94044F32190311DB394@DKDIFS02>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Jabou, I made the same experience when I visited Gambia in November.
Some oceanographers must come to gambia and advice the government. As I
see it they have started to prevent just outside Banjul where you have
the cementary. But at the same time the coast, and the beach where I =
was
staying this time was taken. The beachbar at the Hotel Atlantic was =
near
to disappear one night. Banjul will one day (if not allready) be an
island. The Sea want to break through, and if the government want to
preserve, they need experts. All the sand taken from the beaches go to
all the building-activities, because the tradition is building with
concrete-blocks.(Which I will change with my house in Gambia) The more
houses, the more sand they transport from your beaches. And because of
the big lorries going to Gunjur-Kartong, to bring sand from the beach,
the main road is totally spoiled. The government got a foreign loan, =
(as
I was told on the news in november) to build a new road from
Serekunda/Bijilo to Gunjur along the coastline. What that will come to
mean of exploitation of natural ressources, or rich gambians to buy the
costal area for housing in the long run, or better conditions for the
people living down there, better transport, better service etc., will =
be
interesting to follow. How the government will balance the development
and the preservation of nature and natural ressources at the same =
time,
is interesting for a foreigner as me, who can se the result in Denmark
from just thinking of progressing the infra-structure, and now have to
repair from the investments in the past. It all helps to give a better
NGP !! First take the ressources and build the towns, the roads and all
that, and now "repair" the nature again. Just a comment Asbj=F8rn.
> ----------
> Fra: Gunjur[SMTP:Gunjur@aol.com]
> Svar til: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
> Sendt: 6. januar 1998 16:32
> Til: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
> Emne: Re: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
>=20
> This is a very devastating report, to say the least. On recent visits
> to
> Gambia, l have noticed that water has come right up to the roadside =
on
> the
> Banjul/Serekunda road.There is a point where it looks like it is just
> a matter
> of time before the water will cut off the connection between Banjul
> and the
> Kombos. I am outraged at the amount of sand mining going on, and
> especially at
> the thought of this operation in the Kartong area. The Gunjur/Kartong
> beach
> areas are some of the most beautiful beaches in the World.=20
> There is hardly anymore beach front in the area running from Bakau
> Garage/fruit and vegetable market to the area just past Kairaba =
avenue
> in
> Fajara. During high tide, the water comes right up to where the sand
> ended and
> the walkway into town begins. Without immediate and urgent attention
> folks,
> our country will be under the sea in the very near future.
> PERHAPS MR. TOMBONG SAIDY CAN UPDATE US AS TO THE GOVERNMENT'S PLAN
> VIS A VIS
> THIS VERY URGENT SITUATION.
>=20
> Jabou.
>=20
>=20
>=20
>=20
> In a message dated 1/5/98 2:55:39 AM, you wrote:
>=20
> <<
>=20
> The material that follows has been provided by Gemini News Service
>=20
> =
----------------------------------------------------------------------
> ------
>=20
> ----
>=20
>=20
>=20
> SANDS OF TIME ARE RUNNING OUT FOR GAMBIAN BEACHES
>=20
> The Gambia is shrinking, one grain of sand at a time. Gemini News
> Service
>=20
> reports how the hungry Atlantic Ocean and a recent building boom have
>=20
> combined to threaten the country's coastline, drinking water and
> important
>=20
> tourist trade.
>=20
> By Rosemary Long, a British freelance journalist who lives in The
> Gambia.
>=20
>=20
>=20
> =
----------------------------------------------------------------------
> ------
>=20
> ----
>=20
> The Gambia, among the tiniest countries in Africa, gets smaller every
> day.
>=20
> Even the bones of its ancestors are literally being swallowed up by
> the sea.
>=20
> A desperate attempt has begun to shore up the vital stretch of
> coastline
>=20
> that runs from one side of The Gambia's only stretch of dual
> carriageway to
>=20
> its island capital of Banjul. The focal point, 500 metres long, is
> centred
>=20
> on the Muslim graveyard which for years has been crumbling into the
> sea -
>=20
> sending the remains of loved ones, in some cases, tumbling into the
> teeming
>=20
> Atlantic waves.
>=20
> Local people, exhorted by the Imams, gathered an impressive D250,000
> towards
>=20
> a reclamation effort for which the total cost will be D2.5 million. =
On
> the
>=20
> launch day prayers were said at the beautiful but blemished site, and
> sea
>=20
> eagles, terns and gulls cried out like the souls of the dead. Massive
>=20
> boulders in steel boxes will be lowered along the graveside =
coastline.
> But
>=20
> that leaves another 30 kilometres of The Gambia's coastline still at
> risk
>=20
> making it - as one observer said - a case of sticking a finger in a
> dyke
>=20
> while floods pour through on either side. A United Nations
> Environmental
>=20
> Programme report considers The Gambia one of the world's 10 most
> vulnerable
>=20
> countries for a rise in sea levels.
>=20
> A scientific analysis of the situation shows that this could mean
> anything
>=20
> from a three per cent loss of land (if sea level rises 50 cm) to a
> loss of
>=20
> seven per cent of land (with a sea level rise of 150 cm) over the =
next
> 15
>=20
> years. Swamp rice cultivation areas, herbaceous steppes and grass
> savanna
>=20
> would suffer most - with up to 60 per cent land losses. There would
> also be
>=20
> a dramatic decrease in swamp cultivation, increased saltwater
> intrusion, a
>=20
> "drowning" of mangrove forests and extra sedimentation on the river
> bed.
>=20
> Environmentalist Geir Tyldum anticipates that Banjul - already two
> metres
>=20
> below sea level - could be largely under water by the year 2000. Salt
> water
>=20
> intrusion could affect crops and cattle. Supplies of fresh drinking
> water in
>=20
> heavily-populated areas could be at risk. The Gambia barely covers
> 10,000
>=20
> square kilometres of land and the population in the coastal urban
> areas is
>=20
> soaring.
>=20
> Population expert Mary Fowlis Yamuah reveals that Kombo St Mary, the
>=20
> division which includes much of the residential, tourist, business =
and
>=20
> commerce areas had fewer than 4,000 people in 1973. By 1993 the =
figure
> was
>=20
> more than 228,000. Nearby Western Division has increased its
> population by
>=20
> more than 70 per cent in 10 years.
>=20
> The ground under their feet is in danger of being eaten away. The =
Palm
> Grove
>=20
> Hotel had its bar washed away a few years ago. Radio Syd, one of the
>=20
> country's two commercial radio stations, and a local Boy Scouts =
office
> have
>=20
> both suffered damage. Beaches along the prime tourist area of Bakau
> grow
>=20
> narrower every year. Where there were wide stretches of sand are now
> craggy
>=20
> outcroppings. A fisheries project in Bakau now includes a solid
> concrete
>=20
> slab wall to stop a neighbouring mission house and clinic from
> tumbling down
>=20
> on top of the fishery's new freezing and processing plants. Local
> women
>=20
> complain of water flooding the smoking houses where fish is cured for
> sale.
>=20
> "Sometimes we are ankle-deep in water and cannot smoke our fish," =
said
> one
>=20
> woman. Further south is the top tourist beach flanking the main =
hotels
> and
>=20
> sweeping spectacularly down to nearby fishing villages. There, too,
> the sand
>=20
> is being swallowed.
>=20
> The predator is not just the ever-hungry Atlantic Ocean. Sand-mining
> has
>=20
> been adding to the despoliation of the shoreline. In the past five
> years it
>=20
> has increased dramatically, with a rapid rise in the use of concrete
> to
>=20
> build houses and a series of big government projects. A beach which
> once
>=20
> sloped almost imperceptibly towards the water from the largest hotels
> and
>=20
> valuable Bijilo Forest Park, now slopes sharply - with new drops at
> every
>=20
> spring tide. The mining was moved from the prime hotel areas down to
> the
>=20
> picturesque area between Bijilo and Brufut villages, where dark grey
> mud has
>=20
> replaced large tracts of golden sand.
>=20
> The previous government of Sir Dawda Jawara endlessly promised to
> "look at"
>=20
> the situation, and for a while, limited the number of truckloads to =
50
> per
>=20
> day. Since the military government of Yahya Jammeh took over last =
July
> the
>=20
> situation has deteriorated, with no apparent attempt to limit the
>=20
> destruction. Now some 200 truckloads are said to be taken daily, with
>=20
> drivers thundering through peaceful village and bush areas at the =
dead
> of
>=20
> night in order to avoid paying the council tax on their mining, which
>=20
> applies only during working hours. Tourists and columnists have often
>=20
> written to the local papers about how their pleasant beach walks are
>=20
> hampered by roaring, smoking lorries. Plans are now said to be afoot
> to move
>=20
> the sand-mining to Kartong, a gloriously unspoiled area in the most
> southern
>=20
> of the country adjacent to the Senegalese border, but some
> conservationists
>=20
> have called for it to be kept as an area of natural beauty.
>=20
> The UN and the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources are
> studying
>=20
> the situation, considering alternative building materials and
> recommending
>=20
> more tree-planting to hold the land.
>=20
>=20
>=20
> =
----------------------------------------------------------------------
> ------
>=20
> ----
>=20
> Copyright: News-Scan International Ltd 28/7
>=20
> =
----------------------------------------------------------------------
> ------
>=20
> ----
>=20
> Gemini News Service Home Page
>=20
> =
----------------------------------------------------------------------
> ------
>=20
> ----
>=20
>=20
>=20
>=20
>=20
>=20
>=20
> ----------------------- Headers --------------------------------
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> (PST)
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> (SMI-8.6/Qatar-Internet-
> Sendmail It's now Mon, 5 Jan 1998 10:36:22 -0300)
> id KAA12964; Mon, 5 Jan 1998 10:36:22 -0300
> From: "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
> To: <gampatriots@Corp.Sun.COM>
> Subject: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
> Date: Mon, 5 Jan 1998 10:39:24 +0300
> Message-ID: <01bd19ad$0cf596a0$352185c2@q-tel.qatar.net>
> MIME-Version: 1.0
> Content-Type: text/plain;
> charset=3D"iso-8859-1"
> Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
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> X-MSMail-Priority: Normal
> X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook Express 4.71.1712.3
> X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V4.71.1712.3
>=20
> >>
>=20

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 12:01:50 +0100
From: Tor Blaha <blaha@online.no>
To: gambia <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: help
Message-ID: <34B3609D.29BE5BC7@online.no>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

I try to get the new tfl. and fax nr. for The Gambia Expedition Tours,
but nowbody have it. Some her to help me for that.
Yours Tor Blaha


http://home.sol.no/~blaha/


------------------------------

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 03:21:49 PST
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Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 10:14:05 -0500
From: habib <hghanim@erols.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
Message-ID: <34B39BBD.4DC6@erols.com>
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Asbjørn Nordam wrote:
>
> Jabou, I made the same experience when I visited Gambia in November.
> Some oceanographers must come to gambia and advice the government. As I
> see it they have started to prevent just outside Banjul where you have
> the cementary. But at the same time the coast, and the beach where I was
> staying this time was taken. The beachbar at the Hotel Atlantic was near
> to disappear one night. Banjul will one day (if not allready) be an
> island. The Sea want to break through, and if the government want to
> preserve, they need experts. All the sand taken from the beaches go to
> all the building-activities, because the tradition is building with
> concrete-blocks.(Which I will change with my house in Gambia) The more
> houses, the more sand they transport from your beaches. And because of
> the big lorries going to Gunjur-Kartong, to bring sand from the beach,
> the main road is totally spoiled. The government got a foreign loan, (as
> I was told on the news in november) to build a new road from
> Serekunda/Bijilo to Gunjur along the coastline. What that will come to
> mean of exploitation of natural ressources, or rich gambians to buy the
> costal area for housing in the long run, or better conditions for the
> people living down there, better transport, better service etc., will be
> interesting to follow. How the government will balance the development
> and the preservation of nature and natural ressources at the same time,
> is interesting for a foreigner as me, who can se the result in Denmark
> from just thinking of progressing the infra-structure, and now have to
> repair from the investments in the past. It all helps to give a better
> NGP !! First take the ressources and build the towns, the roads and all
> that, and now "repair" the nature again. Just a comment Asbjørn.
> > ----------
> > Fra: Gunjur[SMTP:Gunjur@aol.com]
> > Svar til: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
> > Sendt: 6. januar 1998 16:32
> > Til: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
> > Emne: Re: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
> >
> > This is a very devastating report, to say the least. On recent visits
> > to
> > Gambia, l have noticed that water has come right up to the roadside on
> > the
> > Banjul/Serekunda road.There is a point where it looks like it is just
> > a matter
> > of time before the water will cut off the connection between Banjul
> > and the
> > Kombos. I am outraged at the amount of sand mining going on, and
> > especially at
> > the thought of this operation in the Kartong area. The Gunjur/Kartong
> > beach
> > areas are some of the most beautiful beaches in the World.
> > There is hardly anymore beach front in the area running from Bakau
> > Garage/fruit and vegetable market to the area just past Kairaba avenue
> > in
> > Fajara. During high tide, the water comes right up to where the sand
> > ended and
> > the walkway into town begins. Without immediate and urgent attention
> > folks,
> > our country will be under the sea in the very near future.
> > PERHAPS MR. TOMBONG SAIDY CAN UPDATE US AS TO THE GOVERNMENT'S PLAN
> > VIS A VIS
> > THIS VERY URGENT SITUATION.
> >
> > Jabou.
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > In a message dated 1/5/98 2:55:39 AM, you wrote:
> >
> > <<
> >
> > The material that follows has been provided by Gemini News Service
> >
> > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> > ------
> >
> > ----
> >
> >
> >
> > SANDS OF TIME ARE RUNNING OUT FOR GAMBIAN BEACHES
> >
> > The Gambia is shrinking, one grain of sand at a time. Gemini News
> > Service
> >
> > reports how the hungry Atlantic Ocean and a recent building boom have
> >
> > combined to threaten the country's coastline, drinking water and
> > important
> >
> > tourist trade.
> >
> > By Rosemary Long, a British freelance journalist who lives in The
> > Gambia.
> >
> >
> >
> > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> > ------
> >
> > ----
> >
> > The Gambia, among the tiniest countries in Africa, gets smaller every
> > day.
> >
> > Even the bones of its ancestors are literally being swallowed up by
> > the sea.
> >
> > A desperate attempt has begun to shore up the vital stretch of
> > coastline
> >
> > that runs from one side of The Gambia's only stretch of dual
> > carriageway to
> >
> > its island capital of Banjul. The focal point, 500 metres long, is
> > centred
> >
> > on the Muslim graveyard which for years has been crumbling into the
> > sea -
> >
> > sending the remains of loved ones, in some cases, tumbling into the
> > teeming
> >
> > Atlantic waves.
> >
> > Local people, exhorted by the Imams, gathered an impressive D250,000
> > towards
> >
> > a reclamation effort for which the total cost will be D2.5 million. On
> > the
> >
> > launch day prayers were said at the beautiful but blemished site, and
> > sea
> >
> > eagles, terns and gulls cried out like the souls of the dead. Massive
> >
> > boulders in steel boxes will be lowered along the graveside coastline.
> > But
> >
> > that leaves another 30 kilometres of The Gambia's coastline still at
> > risk
> >
> > making it - as one observer said - a case of sticking a finger in a
> > dyke
> >
> > while floods pour through on either side. A United Nations
> > Environmental
> >
> > Programme report considers The Gambia one of the world's 10 most
> > vulnerable
> >
> > countries for a rise in sea levels.
> >
> > A scientific analysis of the situation shows that this could mean
> > anything
> >
> > from a three per cent loss of land (if sea level rises 50 cm) to a
> > loss of
> >
> > seven per cent of land (with a sea level rise of 150 cm) over the next
> > 15
> >
> > years. Swamp rice cultivation areas, herbaceous steppes and grass
> > savanna
> >
> > would suffer most - with up to 60 per cent land losses. There would
> > also be
> >
> > a dramatic decrease in swamp cultivation, increased saltwater
> > intrusion, a
> >
> > "drowning" of mangrove forests and extra sedimentation on the river
> > bed.
> >
> > Environmentalist Geir Tyldum anticipates that Banjul - already two
> > metres
> >
> > below sea level - could be largely under water by the year 2000. Salt
> > water
> >
> > intrusion could affect crops and cattle. Supplies of fresh drinking
> > water in
> >
> > heavily-populated areas could be at risk. The Gambia barely covers
> > 10,000
> >
> > square kilometres of land and the population in the coastal urban
> > areas is
> >
> > soaring.
> >
> > Population expert Mary Fowlis Yamuah reveals that Kombo St Mary, the
> >
> > division which includes much of the residential, tourist, business and
> >
> > commerce areas had fewer than 4,000 people in 1973. By 1993 the figure
> > was
> >
> > more than 228,000. Nearby Western Division has increased its
> > population by
> >
> > more than 70 per cent in 10 years.
> >
> > The ground under their feet is in danger of being eaten away. The Palm
> > Grove
> >
> > Hotel had its bar washed away a few years ago. Radio Syd, one of the
> >
> > country's two commercial radio stations, and a local Boy Scouts office
> > have
> >
> > both suffered damage. Beaches along the prime tourist area of Bakau
> > grow
> >
> > narrower every year. Where there were wide stretches of sand are now
> > craggy
> >
> > outcroppings. A fisheries project in Bakau now includes a solid
> > concrete
> >
> > slab wall to stop a neighbouring mission house and clinic from
> > tumbling down
> >
> > on top of the fishery's new freezing and processing plants. Local
> > women
> >
> > complain of water flooding the smoking houses where fish is cured for
> > sale.
> >
> > "Sometimes we are ankle-deep in water and cannot smoke our fish," said
> > one
> >
> > woman. Further south is the top tourist beach flanking the main hotels
> > and
> >
> > sweeping spectacularly down to nearby fishing villages. There, too,
> > the sand
> >
> > is being swallowed.
> >
> > The predator is not just the ever-hungry Atlantic Ocean. Sand-mining
> > has
> >
> > been adding to the despoliation of the shoreline. In the past five
> > years it
> >
> > has increased dramatically, with a rapid rise in the use of concrete
> > to
> >
> > build houses and a series of big government projects. A beach which
> > once
> >
> > sloped almost imperceptibly towards the water from the largest hotels
> > and
> >
> > valuable Bijilo Forest Park, now slopes sharply - with new drops at
> > every
> >
> > spring tide. The mining was moved from the prime hotel areas down to
> > the
> >
> > picturesque area between Bijilo and Brufut villages, where dark grey
> > mud has
> >
> > replaced large tracts of golden sand.
> >
> > The previous government of Sir Dawda Jawara endlessly promised to
> > "look at"
> >
> > the situation, and for a while, limited the number of truckloads to 50
> > per
> >
> > day. Since the military government of Yahya Jammeh took over last July
> > the
> >
> > situation has deteriorated, with no apparent attempt to limit the
> >
> > destruction. Now some 200 truckloads are said to be taken daily, with
> >
> > drivers thundering through peaceful village and bush areas at the dead
> > of
> >
> > night in order to avoid paying the council tax on their mining, which
> >
> > applies only during working hours. Tourists and columnists have often
> >
> > written to the local papers about how their pleasant beach walks are
> >
> > hampered by roaring, smoking lorries. Plans are now said to be afoot
> > to move
> >
> > the sand-mining to Kartong, a gloriously unspoiled area in the most
> > southern
> >
> > of the country adjacent to the Senegalese border, but some
> > conservationists
> >
> > have called for it to be kept as an area of natural beauty.
> >
> > The UN and the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources are
> > studying
> >
> > the situation, considering alternative building materials and
> > recommending
> >
> > more tree-planting to hold the land.
> >
> >
> >
> > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> > ------
> >
> > ----
> >
> > Copyright: News-Scan International Ltd 28/7
> >
> > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> > ------
> >
> > ----
> >
> > Gemini News Service Home Page
> >
> > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> > ------
> >
> > ----
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > ----------------------- Headers --------------------------------
> > Return-Path: <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
> > Received: from relay18.mail.aol.com (relay18.mail.aol.com
> > [172.31.109.18]) by
> > air09.mail.aol.com (v37.8) with SMTP; Mon, 05 Jan 1998 02:55:39 -0500
> > Received: from mercury.Sun.COM (mercury.Sun.COM [192.9.25.1])
> > by relay18.mail.aol.com (8.8.5/8.8.5/AOL-4.0.0)
> > with SMTP id CAA08132;
> > Mon, 5 Jan 1998 02:51:42 -0500 (EST)
> > Received: from Corp.Sun.COM ([129.145.35.29]) by mercury.Sun.COM
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> > -0800
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> > (PST)
> > Received: from q-tel.qatar.net by qatar.net.qa
> > (SMI-8.6/Qatar-Internet-
> > Sendmail It's now Mon, 5 Jan 1998 10:36:22 -0300)
> > id KAA12964; Mon, 5 Jan 1998 10:36:22 -0300
> > From: "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
> > To: <gampatriots@Corp.Sun.COM>
> > Subject: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
> > Date: Mon, 5 Jan 1998 10:39:24 +0300
> > Message-ID: <01bd19ad$0cf596a0$352185c2@q-tel.qatar.net>
> > MIME-Version: 1.0
> > Content-Type: text/plain;
> > charset="iso-8859-1"
> > Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
> > X-Priority: 3
> > X-MSMail-Priority: Normal
> > X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook Express 4.71.1712.3
> > X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V4.71.1712.3
> >
> > >>
> >
Asborn and Jabou ,
you are so right . This matter is urgent. My uncle who died in 1962 was
buried in the old muslim cemetry before you get to the prisons near Palm
Grove hotel. His grave has completely dissapeared. I understand the
beach is right next to the road now.
Regarding building new houses , I wonder if mud from the river bed would
suffice instead of beach sand when making concrete or cement blocks.
Maybe with trial and errors we may come up with an alternative like the
chinese firebricks factory in Kanifing for all new developments.
If ther are any technical experts out there that can sustain this idea
please comment
Habib Diab Ghanim

MZ

------------------------------

Date: 07 Jan 1998 16:46:01 +0100
From: Ba-Musa Ceesay <Ba-Musa.Ceesay@Oslo.Norad.telemax.no>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu (Receipt notification requested)
Cc: GAMBIA-L <x400@NORAD.telemax.no> (Receipt notification requested)
Subject: help
Message-ID: <post.ut34b3a16e*/c=NO/admd=Telemax/prmd=Norad/o=Oslo/s=Ceesay/g=Ba-Musa/@MHS>
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The Gambia Expedition Tours
P.M.B. 378
Serekunda

Tel: (220) 464 008 or 461 628
Fax: (220) 460 023 or 393 999

Regards

Ba.

I try to get the new tfl. and fax nr. for The Gambia Expedition Tours,
but nowbody have it. Some her to help me for that.
Yours Tor Blaha


http://home.sol.no/~blaha/


------------------------------

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 12:38:43 -0500 (EST)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: msjaiteh@mtu.edu
Subject: Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
Message-ID: <199801071738.MAA20046@spruce.ffr.mtu.edu>


> From GAMBIA-L-owner@u.washington.edu Wed Jan 7 03:48:57 1998
> Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 09:49:26 +0100
> From: =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
> To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> Subject: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
> MIME-Version: 1.0
> Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
> X-To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> X-Priority: 3
> X-Listprocessor-Version: 8.1 beta -- ListProcessor(tm) by CREN
>
> Jabou, I made the same experience when I visited Gambia in November.
> Some oceanographers must come to gambia and advice the government. As I
> see it they have started to prevent just outside Banjul where you have
> the cementary. But at the same time the coast, and the beach where I was
> staying this time was taken. The beachbar at the Hotel Atlantic was near
> to disappear one night. Banjul will one day (if not allready) be an
> island. The Sea want to break through, and if the government want to
> preserve, they need experts. All the sand taken from the beaches go to
> all the building-activities, because the tradition is building with
> concrete-blocks.(Which I will change with my house in Gambia) The more
> houses, the more sand they transport from your beaches. And because of
> the big lorries going to Gunjur-Kartong, to bring sand from the beach,
> the main road is totally spoiled. The government got a foreign loan, (as
> I was told on the news in november) to build a new road from
> Serekunda/Bijilo to Gunjur along the coastline. What that will come to
> mean of exploitation of natural ressources, or rich gambians to buy the
> costal area for housing in the long run, or better conditions for the
> people living down there, better transport, better service etc., will be
> interesting to follow. How the government will balance the development
> and the preservation of nature and natural ressources at the same time,
> is interesting for a foreigner as me, who can se the result in Denmark
> from just thinking of progressing the infra-structure, and now have to
> repair from the investments in the past. It all helps to give a better
> NGP !! First take the ressources and build the towns, the roads and all
> that, and now "repair" the nature again. Just a comment Asbjørn.


I thank Jabou and Asbjorn for bringing up the Gambia beach problem. Let me start by saying that I am no expert in this subject. I happen to be a concern somebody having the feeling that somthing is not right.

Jabou some legend say that Banjul will be consumed by the sea. I am no believer in legend but I think the threat to Banjul and the surrounding is no doubt real and I believe it is well understood by the government. What is not clear is whether the real cause of it is undertood. Theories say that sand mining is the major cause followed by construction particularly on the south Bank of the estuary. However several attempts have been made to mitigate the problem including banning sand mining between Banjul and Bijilo perhaps even beyond. What is interesting is that the problem seems to be increasing. The only things that really seem to work (only for a short while though) is the artificial Barriers on the beach. I will call expert to correct me on this. If that seems to be the case then we might want to look beyond sand mining on the south Bank. I think that big picture approach may give us better understanding. A complete study of ocean and river currents on both sides of the !
!
!
!
river.

I say that one reason. For quite sometime now (perhaps 20 yrs) there is a growing sand bank near Barra around the ferry terminal and former GPMB depot. The problem was so serious that the Ferry terminal had to be regularly dredged. That problem could have come from the construction of those stuctures. If so then one may ask, where would all that sand be if the structures were never built? Perhap we could hydrologists and physicists in the Bantaba who are familar with the area to put in their thoughts.

Asbjorn, one can understand your feelings about the potential impacts of the new road. Let me say that there is no land between Tanjeh and Banjul that one can call "really public" except for a few patches. Also unless things changed since 1994, much of the lands in the area along the proposed road had been purchased by affluent Gambians aware of the plans since early 1990s. The road had been part of the tourist development plan and almost all the beach (except a few strips) had been desinated Tourist Develepment Area. Talking of Natural Resources, it is sad to say,there is very little of that.

Malanding jaiteh


------------------------------

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 13:43:04 -0500 (EST)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: msjaiteh@mtu.edu
Subject: Gambia Education Support Organization - plan for approval
Message-ID: <199801071843.NAA20054@spruce.ffr.mtu.edu>

I am glad to announce that the Gambia Education Support Organization plan is ready for general membership approval. I thought I should make a few comments.

The document is in two parts to help those limited on space. If the portions are still long for you please let me know.

The document is in ascii text format. please let me know if you cannot read it. For those who wish to receive the document in other formats please let me know.

Approvals can be in the form of YEA or NEA (Yes or No) to indicate whether you approve it or not. Please no abstention! This statement can be sent to any member of the drafting committee

they are: chemsm@panther.gsu.edu
bala7500@mach1.wlu.ca
msjaiteh@mtu.edu
or just press the reply button. I do understand that may cause chaos for those with limited space in cyberspace!! We apologies for any inconvenience that may be caused.

let me conclude by thanking all those who sent in their comments. the drafting team really appreciate them. One outstanding contributor is Michael Gomez. Thank you Michael for your time and efforts. Well appreciated.

malanding jaiteh


------------------------------

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 13:43:15 -0500 (EST)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: msjaiteh@mtu.edu
Subject: Gambia Education Support organization - Document for approval
Message-ID: <199801071843.NAA20057@spruce.ffr.mtu.edu>

My dear colleagues. It is indeed an honor to present on behalf of the drafting team the final draft og hte ambia Education Support Organization plan for general membership approval. For our newest members of the Bantabaa, some months ago it was proposed that members of Gambia-l come together and think of ways to help our education in the gambia. After some brainstorming an educatio committee was formed to come up with a working document. Earlier in the process, a questionnaire survey was conducted to help guide the committee. Notable in the reseponses of many who answered the questionnaire was the wish to establish an automnomous organization that could helpm individuals and institutions in need at all levels and geographic location in the Gambia. based on those principles a drafting team fomulated a document. This went through several stages of review until acceptable by hte majority was present to the general membership of Gambia-l for a final review before an approval voteo!
!
!
!
n it. The purpose of going through these many stages is is to ensure as amny views and included as possible. There is no doubt that a few ideas are still remain to heard or included. Nevertheless it is my personal opinion that we will have time to review those in later dater date.

Members of the drafting team and education committee in general believe that it is time to submit the document now to proceed with the task of establishing a proper organization. Once an Organization is established it should not be a problem to include other ideas.


I will take this opportunity to say that some months ago it was indicated to the education committee that some five students in the Gambia are in need of help. To use that for a start, an account was set up by one member Andrea Klumpp to facilitate receipt of funds from able parties in the committee. Andrea left for the gambia and it was decided that she could go ahead and disburse money to the recepients. I believe that she will be willing to share with the entire group on whatever came out of that.

As a guide, we might want to complete a few things as soon as possible.

1. approve the document
2. register members
3. identify an nomiations and elections committee
4. elect Executive committee
5. Register organization (tax exemption purposes)
6. the ball is rolling (its the committees business not mine to say where to!)


Malanding Jaiteh

Part 1 of 2 part document

Gambia Education Support Organization


I. Mission

The mission of the Gambia Education Support Organization is to provide
assistance to Gambians and Gambian institutions in education in the Gambia.
A vital part of the Organization's mission will be to become a medium through
which intellectual, logistic and material resources of Gambians and friends
of the Gambia can be utilized to improve education in the Gambia.

To this end, the Organization will:

Provide intellectual, material, logistic and other support to individuals and
institutions in need at all levels of education in the Gambia.

Facilitate access to information and resources on education and research in the
Gambia.

Improve coordination and communication among members to support education in
the Gambia.

Develop and maintain a responsive and financially stable organization.

II. Organization structure:

General Membership

Membership to the Organization is open to all (Gambians and non-Gambians). There
shall be two categories of membership, voting and Honorary members. Voting
members will be required to pay annual membership fees as determined by the
Organization. All voting members will have the right to vote and run for office.
Members who fail to fulfill their obligations will cease to have the above rights.
All other contributors who do not fall under this category shall become Honarary
members.

Executive Committee

The Organization will conduct its overall activity through the Executive Committee.
The Executive Committee will oversee the planning and implementation of the
Organization's activities. The Committee will be voted in every two years. It shall
consist of the Executive Director, Deputy Executive Director, ex-Executive
Director, three Zone Coordinators (Gamabia, Europe and North America), and a
Treasurer.

Zones/Regions

Geographically the Organization will be divided to three zones: Europe, North America
and Gambia. Members in other regions can chose their zone of affiliation at their
convenience. Zone Coordinators will oversee the Organization's activities in their
zones and will act and speak on behalf of their zones.

III The Constitution

Article I The Name of the Organization.

The name of the organization (hereinafter referred to as the Organization) shall be
the GAMBIA EDUCATION SUPPORT ORGANIZATION, GESO.

Article II Location and Address

The Principal office of the organization shall be at the address of the current GESO
Exective Director.

Article III Membership

Section 1. Membership of the Organization is open to all (Gambians and
non-Gambians). There shall be two categories of membership, voting and honorary
members. Voting members shall be required to pay annual membership fees to be
determined by the the Executive Committee in consultation with the Financial and
Fund Raising Committee. All voting members will have the right to vote and
run for office. Contributors who do not wish to be active members in the Organization
shall become honorary members.

Section 2. The membership year is the calendar year ending December 31.

Article IV Membership fees

The following membership fee will be charged accordingly.

US $10 per month for non-student members residing in North America, Europe,
Australia New Zealand and Japan.

US $2.5 adult members elsewhere including Gambia.

US $5 Students in North America, Europe, Australia and Japan.

US $1.00 for students elsewhere.

Article V The Executive Committee

Section 1. The Executive Committee, subject always to the provisions of this
Constitution, shall have general supervision and control of the management and
administration of the affairs of GESO and may exercise all or any of the power of
GESO including, without limitation , power to make donations of, and accept
donations to, the funds of GESO and to invest and reinvest its funds in any
property, real or personal, to such extent deem advisable PROVIDED,
however, no such donation shall be made to any member and no such
investment shall be made in the securities of, and no loan made to, any member.

Section 2. Special meetings of the Executive Committee may be called by the
Executive Director or by any four (4) or more of the officers.

Section 3. A quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the Executive
Committee shall constitute a simple majority of officers.

Section 4. Every officer shall be entitled to vote at any meeting on all matters.

Section 5. The Executive Director shall give notice of every meeting of the
Executive Committee to each officer at least one (1) week before the meeting.
Notice of the Executive Committee meetings must specify the purpose.

Article VI Officers

Section 1. The officers of GESO shall be a Executive Director, Deputy Executive
Director, a Treasurer, and three Zone Coordinators, one from each Zone. An Executive
Committee shall consist of all the officers, who shall have the power of a Board of
Directors and other such members that the Executive Committee shall appoint to serve
from time to time at the discretion of the Committee.

Section 2. The Executive Director, Deputy Executive Director and Treasure shall
be elected by the members as specified in Article IX. Zone Coordinators shall be
chosen by their Zones to represent them on Executive Committee.

Section 3. The Executive Committee may designate one or more individuals as
temporary officers, to continue as such during such term as shall be specified by the
Executive Committee. Such temporary officers need not be members of the Executive
Committee.

Section 4. Any temporary officer appointed by the Executive Committee may be
removed from office by the Executive Committee when his or her duties as prescribed
by Executive Committee, has been executed out as determined by the Executive
Committee.

Section 5. Any officer may resign by filing with the Recording Secretary or filed
with the Executive Committee a written resignation, which shall take effect on being
filed or at such other time as may be prescribed therein. Any vacancy at any time
existing in the Executive Committee or in any other office or in any committee may be
filled by the Executive Committee at any meeting and the person chosen to fill the
vacancy shall hold office for no more than 120 days or until an elected member is
chosen. Any officer may be removed from office with just cause by the Executive
Committee following notice, which states her/his removal, is proposed.

Article VII Powers and Duties of officers

Section 1. The Executive Director shall be the chief executive officer of GESO,
shall preside at all meetings of GESO and of the Executive Committee, and shall have
the general and active management of the affairs of the Executive Committee, subject
to the approval and direction of the Executive Committee.

Section 2. In the absence of the Executive Director, or in case of her/his death,
resignation, incapacity or refusal to act, the duties pertaining to the office shall,
until the election of new Executive Director, be performed by the Deputy Executive
Director, or in the event of the absence, death, resignation, incapacity, or refusal
to act by the Deputy Executive Director, the Executive Committee shall designate one
member to act.

Section 3. The Treasurer shall be in charge of all moneys of GESO, shall collect
all moneys due to GESO, shall have the power to accept donations to GESO and
(subject to the control of the Executive Committee) shall deposit the funds of GESO in
its bank account, and may invest the funds of GESO subject to the prior approval
of the Executive Committee. She/he shall keep such books as may be necessary for
the duties of her/his office, which at all times shall be open to the Executive
Committee. She/he shall report in detail annually, and as often as required by the
Executive Committee, all moneys collected, expended or invested, all outstanding
obligation of GESO, and such other matters as may be deemed proper in connection with
her/his office, and shall perform such other duties as the Executive Director or
the Executive Committee may require. She/he shall keep updated records of the
membership and updated records of the mailing lists with the help of the
Recording and Corresponding Secretary.

Section 4. The Deputy Executive Director and three (3) Zone Coordinators of the
Executive Committee shall be responsible for convening standing and ad hoc
Committees, and responsible for conference programs, minutes from Executive
Committee and Annual meetings, and other GESO documents. All four (4) shall
perform such other duties as the Executive Director and the Executive Committee may
require.

Section 5. The Executive shall nominate the appointment of a Recording and
Correspondence Secretary for approval by the General membersip within sixty (60)
days from the day of nomination. The Recording and Correspondenece Secretary can
not vote in the Executive Committee.

Section 6. The primary responsibility of the Recording and Corresponding Secretary
shall be to act as liaison between GESO and outside organizations; the secretary
shall insure that notification of GESO meetings be posted. The Recording and
Corresponding Secretary shall also assist the Treasurer in updating mailing lists.
She/he shall conduct all correspondence of GESO and assist the Executive Director
in maintaining contact with the standing committees. She/he shall perform such
other duties as the Executive Director and the Executive Committee of GESO may
require.

Section 7. Zone Coordinators. Geographically, the Organization will be divided to
three zones, Europe, North America and Gambia. Members in other regions can
chose their zone of affiliation at their convenience. Each Zone Coordinator will
oversee Organizational activities in their zones and will act and speak on behalf
of their zones.

Article VIII Committees

The Executive Committee and the Executive Director may from time to time appoint
such committees, consisting of such persons, for such purposes and with such
powers as the Executive Committee or the Executive Director shall determine. The
members of any such committees shall serve at the discretion of the Executive
Committee. A member of the Executive Committee shall serve on, but need not chair,
each committee, and shall act as liaison between the committee and the Executive
Committee.

Ad hoc Committees (Working Committees) The Working Committee members will
be appointed by the Executive Committee on need bases. The Working Committees
will be technical working groups to prepare activity plans, or implement activities.
The Working Committee will be dissolved at the end of their assignment or at the
discretion of the Executive Committee.

Financial/Fundraising Committee: The Organizations will raise the necessary
finances through membership fees, individual contributions and fundraisers. The
Committee will be the Organization's official fundraiser. The committee shall
coordinate all fundraising activities and will consist of four members. The Committee
will be responsible to consult with Executive Committee to determine annual
membership dues. If this Organization is dissolved all its net funds will be donated
to an institution or institutions of its choice.

Audit Unit
This unit will help ensure that the organization's funds are used as specified.
The unit will comprise of a Chairperson and two committee members. Members of the
committee will be appointed by the Executive Committee as needed. The unit will
prepare its own operational document to be approved by the General membership.


Article IX Elections and Nominations

Section 1 A four (4) member Elections and Nomination committee shall be chosen
by the general membership to oversee and supervise nominations and elections of
officials. The Elections and Nominations Committee shall elect one (1) of its
members to serve as head of the Committee. Members of this committee can not run
for any other office during their tenure as election officials. The committee
shall have final say on election results.

Section 2. The Nomination and Election Committee shall request suggestions from
the members for nominations for the GESO'S officers at least two (2) months before
elections. The Committee shall devise and mail to the voting members a proposed
slate of nominees at least thirty (30) days prior to the annual meeting.
Biographical sketches, together with optional statement of intent consisting
of no more than one hundred words, shall accompany all nominations. All nominations
shall also submit a statement to the Committee on Nominations of their willingness to
serve.

Section 3. All elections shall be held by ballot and candidates receiving the
largest vote cast shall be considered elected. In the case of ties, there shall be
another vote between the two top contenders.

Section 4. A Executive Director shall be elected every two (2) years and shall
serve in the two succeeding years as Executive Director. The term of the Executive
Director shall be two years.

Section 5. The Deputy Executive Director, Treasurer and Zonal Coordinators shall
be elected every other year to a two-year term.

Section 6. The term of the office shall begin on the first Moday after the first
day of January end on the third Monday of December. Each officer shall serve a
maximum of two terms in the office.


Article X Checks, Notes, Drafts and Other Instruments

The treasurer must draw up checks, Notes, Drafts, and other Instruments for the
payment of money drawn or endorsed in the name of GESO but he or she should
not sign it. The signatories are the Executive Director and two (2) other Executive
Committee members besides the Treasurer. Neither the Executive Director nor other
members shall sign any such instrument as foresaid unless authorized by the
Executive Committee to do so.


Article XI Fiscal Year

The Fiscal year of GESO shall be the year ending with the thirty-first (31) day of
December of each year.

Article XII Amendments

Section 1. All proposed amemndments to the Constitution, together with comments
and recommendations of the officers of GESO shall be submitted to all voting
members for ballot by postal or electronic mail.

Section 2. A two third majority of the members returning their ballots within thirty
(30) days of the date of mailing of the proposed amendment(s) shall amend the
Constitution

Article XIII Agreement of GESO

The provisions of the Agreement of GESO as they from time to time exist are a part
of this Constitution. We, whose names are hereto sunscribed, do, by this agreement,
associate ourselves with the intention of forming an organization under the General
Laws of ...

Address:







------------------------------

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 13:49:25 -0500 (EST)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: msjaiteh@mtu.edu
Subject: Gambia Education Support organization
Message-ID: <199801071849.NAA20060@spruce.ffr.mtu.edu>

Part 2 of a 2 part document

Activity Plan.

Focus 1: Program for Institutions in Education .

The long-term goal of this focus is to help upgrade library and
laboratory facilities(including computer) facilities in selected
schools and intitutions. The activities will be implemented
concurrently. With some initiatives already being discussed every
effort will be made to make those the priority. These are the
Gambia College Library and Coputer facilities initiative and the
Give-a-book drive.

Activity 1.1 Gambia College library support

Several members have reported the poor state of the Gambia
College library. The Primary objective of ths activity is to
provide the College Library with basic textbooks Reference
material. To achieve this objective the following are suggested:

that each member to contribute one book and $10 for shipping and
handling each year.

that each Zone will be resposible for collection and shipping to
the Gambia.

that the organization approach agencies and other bodies for
assistance in transportation of these books.


Activity 1.2 Computer facility upgrade
The objective of this activity is to donate 10 computers to
Gambia College, the National Library system and secondary schools
in the Country over a 5 year period.

This will include:
5 Pentium based Multi-media Pcs @ $1500 = $7500
5 x86 PCs (preferably used) @ $750 = $3750
5 Bubble jet printers @ $500 = $2500

Activity 1.3 School classroom support

The aim of this activity is to provide classroom materials and
textbooks to selected Primary and Junior Secondary schools each.

Primary and middle School
5000 Pencils
5000 erasers
2000 sharperners
2000 rulers
2000 color pencils
2000 crayons
500 textbooks
50 teachers guides


Focus 2: Program for Individual Development

The goal of this is to support students in need. To achieve this,
the organization will provide financial assistance through short
grants and scholarships, stationery and book award to students in
financial difficulties. The organization will set up a Students
Advisory and Mentorship Program to advice students.

Activity 2.1 Adopt a student/pupil

This is one of the first activity the organization will
undertake. The Organization will sponsor 10 students, 5 at
Primary and 5 at Secondary Schooleach years. These sponsorship
could range from one time payment of bills to payment of tuition
and books. Recipients will have to demonstrate they are in
considerable financial hardship. The Gambia Zonal Co-ordinator
will in consultation with the rest of the Executive Committee
oversee selection of recipients and disbursement of funds.

Cost of funding 5 Secondary School students at $150 per student
per year amounts to $750. Cost of funding Primary school students
is estimated at $50 per student per year. This amounts to $250
per year.

Cost of 1 year sponsorship.

5 Student @ $150 - $750
5 Pupils @ $50 = $250

Starting 1999, competitions will be supported in essay writing,
science and art projects and award granted. Awards in these
competitions will be in the form of one-time awards.

Activity 2.1 Mentorship and Guidance activity

It is the belief that members of this Organization are notable
role models to many Gambian students. The purpose of this
activity is to take advantage of this relationship. The objective
is to established contact between students particularly Senior
Secondary school students and those established in their intended
careers. The activity will also focus on aadvising students on
matters such as careers, courses and study abroad. A Working
Committe to compile guidelines on careers, scholarships and study
abroad.

Focus 3: Education Information Pragram

A comprehensive information on education in the Gambia is vital
for planning and development of the system. The goal of this
focus is to facilitate access to basic information on eduction
sich as school enrolment, student-teacher ratio, as well as
laboratory and classroom facilities. It is hoped that easy access
to such data would assist planners aid organizations in
determining eligibility.

Activity 3.1 Develop and maintain an Internet Education
Resource Center for the Gambia

The primary objective of this activity is to develop a HomePage
to publish basic information database on education in the Gambia.
The directory contain information on school enrollment; number of
teachers and qualification; The database will contain information
on all schools from Primaty to Higher Edcuation Institutions.

Primary Scools
Year
No. of Classrooms
No. of students
No. of Teachers (uncertified and certified)
student-textbook ratio

Secondary Schools
Year
No. of classrooms
no. of students
no. of teachers(qualification)
student-textbook ratio

Higher Institutions
No. of classrooms
no. of students
No. of teachers(qualification)
Programs offered

A database of Gambians professonals abroad

The purpose of this is to develop and maintain a database on
Gambian professionals around the world. It is hoped that the
Organization will convince employers in the Gambia will in the
future find the Organization a resource pool. To that effect
maintaining such a database will facilitate access to the many
qualified Gambians. It is important to note that entries in this
database will be purely voluntary and will include names,
profession(or intended profession), and contact address.

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 20:39:36 -0500 (EST)
From: "Roberta S. Schaefer" <robertas@erols.com>
To: GAMBIA-L@U.WASHINGTON.EDU
Subject: Unscribe Robertas@erols.com
Message-ID: <199801080139.UAA22313@smtp3.erols.com>
Mime-Version: 1.0
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UNSCRIBE ROBERTAS@EROLS.COM

Momodou



Denmark
10540 Posts

Posted - 10 Sep 2021 :  16:19:42  Show Profile Send Momodou a Private Message  Reply with Quote

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 03:42:48 +0100
From: "Momodou S Sidibeh" <momodou.sidibeh@stockholm.mail.telia.com>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: IS IT IN OUR NATURE? - PART 1
Message-ID: <199801080250.DAA26845@d1o2.telia.com>
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Unless, I am greatly in error, this question related to the larger problem
of the inability for Gambians, broadly speaking, to be able to come
together, united, in order to democratically deal with whatever it is they
think should be done about their collective predicament. The question was
originally raised by my fellow Stockholmer, Mr. Momodou Buharry Gassama.
Buharry asked some very powerful and relevant questions too. Unfortunately,
I do not have his original message as I reformatted my HD when repairing my
computer, and have failed to request it from friends. The week-end is over
and I have only little time. So my response, as I promised earlier, may not
be fully inclusive of all the points raised by Buharry. I truly regret
this.

I should like to comment first on some of the opinions raised in response
to this topic by some contributors. Except for Momodou Camara's response
and one or two others which dealt directly with the above subject, I think
the discussion progressed, or perhaps degenerated, into the more specific
issue of broader political participation in our culture (The Only Solution)
and the subtle question of our intermarital and gender relations (Wife
Beating). These are indeed no less important, but their very specificity
tends to corrupt efforts toward understanding the sources of our famous
disunity by inadvertently narrowing the scope of discussion. Yet all these
questions, and the subject of Africa's experience of slavery, as adressed
by Prof. Sulayman Nyang and Mr.Tamsir Mbye are related in one way or
another to the the question raised by Mr. Gassama:
IMHO, there is indeed a direct relation between our unwilling
acceptance of African participation in enhancing the slave trade and, say,
how most of our governments belatedly and half-heartedly launched
information campaigns for awareness of AIDS. My reasoning here is that in
our feverish, emotive, and largely justified, search for white European
wolves behind every black African bush our leaders (and citizens) went on
looking for "who brought AIDS" to Africa instead of immediately beating the
talking drums to summon us to the village bantaba and inform us about the
deadly virus and how to protect ourselves from it. (We may as well start by
acknowledging that in spite of British threats to use force against him,
the King of Barra, in the 1820s, vehemently INSISTED ON CAPTURING AND
SELLING SLAVES to slave traders! He was actually secretly smuggling slaves
to Goree, as the estuary became closely watched by the British.
Also the great enthusiasm and collective sense of pride of the Jola on
Yahya Jammeh's presidency may be in obvious celebration of ethnic
recognition and respectability by a group that has been, probably, the most
harassed and terrorised by both Mandinka and Wollof muslim leaders just a
hundred years ago. (The irony here is that it was indeed the Jola whose
resistance to European domination of Gambia lasted the longest. As late as
1943 Jola women leaders were sent into exile by British colonizers!).
Besides these, I think it is also in order to refute arguments claiming
"The Only Solution". The biggest concentration, by far, of Gambian
intellectuals, is obviously in Gambia. Teachers, health workers, lawyers,
bankers, engineers, agricultural scientists, doctors, are all engaged with
the day to day search for solutions to problems at home. I think it is also
true that intellectual performance is most effective in the culture were
one feels more at home. This does not, however mean that the best thing all
Gambian intellectuals can do for their country at ANY GIVEN TIME is to be
in Gambia. There are many arguments supporting this position, but let it
suffice to say that our country being so small and our economy
uninteresting for big transnationals, the problem of investing in small
businesses and expanding the private sector naturally falls on the
shoulders of all Gambians. But even more so on the shoulders of those
foreign-based Gambians who are exposed to better financial opportunities,
new techniques, and more advanced business cultures. We are the ones who,
like foreign-based Chinese are now doing, must put efforts together and
create jobs and opportunities in Gambia. No other people will do that for
us. When President Jammeh said that those of us in Europe are mostly toilet
cleaners and scavengers, he was right. But his statement was at best
unfortunate. For most of us do not just create jobs in Gambia when we run
construction projects for ourselves or our parents; or pay school fees for
siblings and relatives who might otherwise have no chance for an education;
or provide much-needed foreign exchange for the banks; or help keep some
Gambian businesses running. We also provide for the Gambia government
millions of dalasi in indirect tax when we make transfers to our families
for their day to day consumption of goods and services. [While I was in
Gambia in 1995, an Imam (the father of a close friend of mine on this
list), assured me that more than 90% of all those who went on the
pilgrimage to Mecca that year from Kombo St. Mary's area, had their travel
expenses and air-tickets paid for by foreign-based Gambians]. So I think it
is a mistake to believe that we who are away CAN DO BETTER FOR GAMBIA (than
those who are already at home) once we return, even if our contributions
can make a difference. What is deemed the only solution is, in my opinion,
just HALF A SOLUTION.
To come to anything near A solution, we have to discuss how our past
history influences ethnic relations and tribal distrust; how our insistence
on being persistent victims clouds our judgement of current priorities. We
have to uncover what anthropological forces, social structures, are
responsible for the automatic division of gender roles in our society -
usually to the detriment of women; and why is Gambian nationalism eclipsed
by Sarahuli, Fula,or Mandinka nationalism or considerations based on age!?
In part 2 of this topic I will write about some of these problems as they
were experienced (by me) in the Gambian Organization in Sweden, and I will
try to answer some of Buharry's criticism.

Lastly, I must thank all list members for honourably ignoring calls and
claims made by village nationalists from Gunjur and Serre-kunda. I really
hope that they would understand that your absolute silence is a loud signal
for them to courageously, and finally, lay down their sticks! :-) :-)
:-)........

Momodou S. Sidibeh, Kartong/Stockholm.

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 00:37:00 -0400 (AST)
From: Fafa Sanyang <fsanyang@is2.dal.ca>
To: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
Message-ID: <Pine.A41.3.95.980107222122.175652A-100000@is2.dal.ca>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII
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Hi, Malanding and all the Bantaba people,
I have been following the very interesting discussion on coastal erosion
in The Gambia.

I am a geologist by training and profession and I have been higly involved
in thinking and trying to seek a sollution if there is any to coastal
erosion in The Gambia.The theories of geological and geomorphological
processes of coastal environment are really complex and cannot be dealt
in this limited time and space.So what I would rather do is to give a
very brief history of response measures so far taken to combat coastal
erosion in The Gambia and some general ideas I have gathered trough my
personal experiece and readings.

The entire coastline of west and central Africa, from Mauritania to Angola
is retreating at diferential but alarming rates in almost all these
countries (see UNEP Regional Seas Report and Studies No. 107, 1989).In
Senegal for example, shoreline retreat at Rufisque has been estimated at
between 0.45 and 2.46 m/yr (1959 to 1980).As recently as 1997, the
Sangomar spit that borders the saloum river was been completely cutoff,
totally
inundating the village of Jiffere (personal visit to the site in July
1997).In The Gambia, studies ( mainly aerial photo interpretation ) have
indicated a general erosion rate of 1-2m/yr. In Localized severely
affected areas such as the Banjul muslim cemetery area, Rufisque and
Jeffere, in senegal and many other areas in the subregion such as the
victoria beach Lagoes erosion rates are much higher. The Geology
department of Chiek Anta Diop University in Dakar has carried many
studies,like wise other parts of the subregion and overseas including
the US but there is yet no conclusive answer to the problems of coastal
erosion.

In The Gambia like many parts of the world, several hard and soft
stabilization efforts were tried but so far the success story is hardly
told anywhere. Even in the US a lot of failures of beach protection
efforts have been reported.

In 1957, the Banjul muslim and christian cemetery area suffered from
flooding during spring tide. Groynes of ruhn palm were constructed with
concrete pannels as respose . This was latter abandonned and rhun palm
piles connected by timber walling and ruhn palm sheet piles, jetted into
the sand secured
to the walling by means of nailing was tried. Both efforts have worked for
sometime and latter failed as we observe today.A combination of groynes
and
boulder stone pitching retained in gabions have also been tried, with no
success.

Resently the muslim community heaped some boulder stones on the seaward
side of the muslim cemetery and this also could not work. This effort was
followed by another gabion basket (bolders in coated wire mesh ) method of
protection which is also failing.The most recent effort is UNDP sponsured
effort which has been mentioned in one of the e-mail messages.

The above is just a synopsys of the problems and efforts. The biggest
question is which stabilization method is most suitable and why all these=
=20
methods are failig. All methods
including concrete wall have failed in many places and infact such
methods have a very serious side effects of the sea attacking the two ends
of the
wall and thus aggravating erosion at these sides.There are several
examples of
this which I cannot give here, but the various sea wall trials in
Rufisque, in senegal are typical and near home examples. The sea wall at
Radio Syd is proved to only hold the sea temporally, The effect of end
erosion can be seen there too.

Therefore the issue of coastal erosion is global and the causes are not
very clear in many places including the Gambia and Senegal. The current
trend of thought is better coastal zone planning, i.e the planning and
management of human activities in the coastal environment. Relocation of
human activities including settlements are some of the solutions in some
literature.This is a very costly venture but it may worth thinking and
planning at an early stage. The village of Jeferre, in Senegal was forced
to relocate by nature within a very short period of time. The US
Geological Survey
report " Coasts in Crisis " by S.J. Williams, K Dodd, and K. K.Gohn, 1991
suggested that the first step needed to manage the coastal crisis is" to
understand our- coast better, to build a solid foundation of earth-science
data on coastal processes and evolution". =20

Thus Sand mining, infracstructure development are all anthropogenic
activities which have been blamed for causing or aggravating coastal
erosion. This cannot be denied but, natural factors such as low
topography,unconsolidated rocks, aggressive hydrodynamic system, and more
importantly sea level rise should be serious looked into, particalarly in
the case of west Africa region.

Malanding, this is done in a big hurry but I think I need to share little
I know in the Senegambia region with all of you. I am curently writing a
short paper on costal erosion in The Gambia.This cannot be available
immediately, because it has to go through academic scrutiny.

Anyway the National Environment Agency (NEA) can be of some help in
providing more recent interventions and the current coastal zone
management paradigm in the Gambia =20

Thanks

Fafa
On Wed, 7 Jan 1998, Malanding S. Jaiteh wrote:

>=20
> > From GAMBIA-L-owner@u.washington.edu Wed Jan 7 03:48:57 1998
> > Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 09:49:26 +0100
> > From: =3D?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=3DF8rn_Nordam?=3D <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
> > To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.wa=
shington.edu>
> > Subject: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
> > MIME-Version: 1.0
> > Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
> > X-To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> > X-Priority: 3
> > X-Listprocessor-Version: 8.1 beta -- ListProcessor(tm) by CREN
> >=20
> > Jabou, I made the same experience when I visited Gambia in November.
> > Some oceanographers must come to gambia and advice the government. As I
> > see it they have started to prevent just outside Banjul where you have
> > the cementary. But at the same time the coast, and the beach where I wa=
s
> > staying this time was taken. The beachbar at the Hotel Atlantic was nea=
r
> > to disappear one night. Banjul will one day (if not allready) be an
> > island. The Sea want to break through, and if the government want to
> > preserve, they need experts. All the sand taken from the beaches go to
> > all the building-activities, because the tradition is building with
> > concrete-blocks.(Which I will change with my house in Gambia) The more
> > houses, the more sand they transport from your beaches. And because of
> > the big lorries going to Gunjur-Kartong, to bring sand from the beach,
> > the main road is totally spoiled. The government got a foreign loan, (a=
s
> > I was told on the news in november) to build a new road from
> > Serekunda/Bijilo to Gunjur along the coastline. What that will come to
> > mean of exploitation of natural ressources, or rich gambians to buy the
> > costal area for housing in the long run, or better conditions for the
> > people living down there, better transport, better service etc., will b=
e
> > interesting to follow. How the government will balance the development
> > and the preservation of nature and natural ressources at the same time=
,
> > is interesting for a foreigner as me, who can se the result in Denmark
> > from just thinking of progressing the infra-structure, and now have to
> > repair from the investments in the past. It all helps to give a better
> > NGP !! First take the ressources and build the towns, the roads and all
> > that, and now "repair" the nature again. Just a comment Asbj=F8rn.
> =20
>=20
> I thank Jabou and Asbjorn for bringing up the Gambia beach problem. Let m=
e start by saying that I am no expert in this subject. I happen to be a con=
cern somebody having the feeling that somthing is not right.=20
>=20
> Jabou some legend say that Banjul will be consumed by the sea. I am no b=
eliever in legend but I think the threat to Banjul and the surrounding is n=
o doubt real and I believe it is well understood by the government. What is=
not clear is whether the real cause of it is undertood. Theories say that =
sand mining is the major cause followed by construction particularly on the=
south Bank of the estuary. However several attempts have been made to miti=
gate the problem including banning sand mining between Banjul and Bijilo p=
erhaps even beyond. What is interesting is that the problem seems to be inc=
reasing. The only things that really seem to work (only for a short while t=
hough) is the artificial Barriers on the beach. I will call expert to corre=
ct me on this. If that seems to be the case then we might want to look beyo=
nd sand mining on the south Bank. I think that big picture approach may giv=
e us better understanding. A complete study of ocean and river currents on =
both sides of the !
> !
> !
> !
> !
> river.=20
>=20
> I say that one reason. For quite sometime now (perhaps 20 yrs) there is a=
growing sand bank near Barra around the ferry terminal and former GPMB de=
pot. The problem was so serious that the Ferry terminal had to be regularly=
dredged. That problem could have come from the construction of those stuct=
ures. If so then one may ask, where would all that sand be if the structure=
s were never built? Perhap we could hydrologists and physicists in the Bant=
aba who are familar with the area to put in their thoughts.=20
>=20
> Asbjorn, one can understand your feelings about the potential impacts of =
the new road. Let me say that there is no land between Tanjeh and Banjul th=
at one can call "really public" except for a few patches. Also unless thing=
s changed since 1994, much of the lands in the area along the proposed road=
had been purchased by affluent Gambians aware of the plans since early 199=
0s. The road had been part of the tourist development plan and almost all t=
he beach (except a few strips) had been desinated Tourist Develepment Area.=
Talking of Natural Resources, it is sad to say,there is very little of tha=
t.
>=20
> Malanding jaiteh
>=20
>=20


------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 03:12:02 -0000
From: "pmj@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: New member
Message-ID: <B0000033359@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sent by "Pa Musa Jallow" <pmj@commit.gm>
via Commit


Hi Winston,
Are you the same Winston Paco Abraham from Saints..if you are then you were
my classmate in the good Father Gough Saints Days when we whooped every one
at books and play..if not still a very big welcome from me..Pa Musa Jallow

----------
> From:


------------------------------

Date: Thu, 08 Jan 1998 00:57:35 PST
From: "latjor ndow" <latjor@hotmail.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: conference
Message-ID: <19980108085737.1672.qmail@hotmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain

greetings:
since i've been away for a while, let me first wish everyone a
fruitful new year.
i am in the process of organizing a conference in the d.c. area in
conjunction with our independence anniversary celebration. i would
like to invite groups and individuals who may be interested in
helping organize this conference to please contact me as soon as
possible. (tel. 703-567-5755)
it is my desire to have this conference focus on the issue of
'leadership'. the washington metropolitan area (i.e. d.c., maryland,
northern virginia) has one of the largest (if not the largest)
concentration of gambians in the u.s. yet, like most other regions where
gambians are found in large numbers, we are fragmented. this issue is
not a new one. as a matter of fact, reading through mr. sidibeh's
posting (a sobering piece too), mr. buharry gassama had again raised the
issue. our further fragmentation is hence reflected in our lack of
economic (hence political) power.
as a new/old resident of the district, i am very much aware of most (if
not all the issues) that impede our forward progress. as a matter of
fact, one does not have to be a rocket scientist to identify these. go
to any 'kampeekaay' and raise the issue of our community's condition and
you will hear (between sips of attaya of course) some of the most
brilliant analyses on why we are divided. age, gender, ethnicity,
educational or religious background all become non-issues when the
gambian mind goes to work dissecting 'our problems'! the issue then, it
seems to me, is not our lacking in understanding of the nature of our
problem. we know it intimately! where we have fallen short has been in
devising solutions and IMPLEMENTING them.
when at the end of our endless analyzing we corner the great beast
called 'disunity', rather than wrestle with it head on like the great
bulls we claim we are, we conveniently form 'new organizations' to
further isolate ourselves from each other. there is nothing wrong in
forming organizations, the problem is when they replicate each other.
below is a part of a piece i just submitted to 'GESTU', the official
newsletter of the Gambia People's Association (GPA) (their inaugural
issue will be out by the end of this week), one of the contenders for
the d.c. throne. it is a hurried piece but i hope it will serve as
openers in the process of dialoguing with the various groups and the
community in general. i do invite criticism and comments to everything i
wrote.

============================
The Founders: This group consist of those few individuals who initially
came together to bring the organization into existence. Their stated
goals are noble and selfless, always in the interest of the people. The
people first! They have a vested interest in protecting the interests of
the organization to the point that it becomes a very personal issue. It
is usually this personalization of the organization which will become
the source of future discord. Outsiders will soon view the organization
and this group as one. They will say that the organization belongs to
this group of individuals. Statements like, "organization ni Pateh ak
Demba ak Aji ñoy organize ALD bi". Or it can take an ethnic tone,
"Tukulor yei organize tey". On the other hand, the Founders take on the
added psychological burden of seeing themselves as the only ones who
truly care about the welfare of the community and would strive on even
in isolation. Documents may be modified, albeit legally, to ensure that
no 'outsider' can come in and 'takeover'. The 'Supreme Council'-type
language is evoked. Enter Kukoi Samba Seytane! Seeds of discord ...
The Usurpers: This group may consist of individuals who were part of the
Founders who became disenchanted for whatever reasons (positions,
ethnicity and finance being the major ones), or new members with their
personal agendas. This group may act in one of two ways when they lash
out at the Founders group. Either they will accuse the latter of being
power hungry, money-squandering individuals and discourage others from
joining the organization, or be more bold and create a separate
organization, and 'do their own thing'. The danger here is that there is
more division and disenchantment within the community, making the
possibility of unity even more remote. The Usurpers group will also
create a wonderful manifesto professing their noble goal of serving the
people. After a month or two of high intensity, the interest level of
some (not all) of the group members fizzles out. Stagnation begins to
set in. The people begin to say, 'they are no different from those whom
they were accusing.' Internal feuds may occur as frustration builds,
further undermining the group's ability to deliver. Also, because they
acted in haste to set the organization up, which
is usually the case when a coup is in the process of occurring (remember
the early days of the AFPRC? What's that officer's name who used to zoom
through the kombo highways with his rocket launcher?), individuals with
skills, zeal, and discipline may not be present at the appointing of
officers for the organization. (N.B. One can be a usurper and still do
good. Recall the great usurping dynasty of the 'Askias' (Asikiyaa) of
Mandeland!)
The Outsiders: That is all of us who either do not care about the
welfare of the organizations or are interested but do not want to be
involved. This group is unpredictable by its very nature. It is an
undefined collective of individuals. They are quick to condemn the bad
but slow to applaud the good. Despite their whimsical nature they have
the final say since it was for them that the organizations were created
and continue to be created. To serve the people is the rallying cry! (To
keep up with the times, modern versions are in vogue. E.g.
Accountability and ...)
The Intelligentia: This group is really part of the Outsider group,
however because of the importance of their potential work for the
community they deserve a special category. O.k. Call me an egoist.
Perhaps, you say, it is because I have been categorized many a time as
belonging to this group which is the reason why I have accorded them
special favor. Well, there may be an element of truth in that. Be that
as it may, this group has always been approached for their endorsement
in legitimizing the various organizations. Be it in their participation
in conferences, or as Board of Directors, or Special Advisors, and so
on. They are certainly part of the equation. (Note that an equation has
two sides - a problem side and a solution side). The intelligentia, as
represented (at least in the eyes of the organizations and community) by
the 'Doctors' who are seen as forever analyzing the social malaise from
higher ground are perceived to be unreachable and unapproachable by
large segments of the community. The younger generations especially have
gradually developed a "who cares about them" attitude. Conferences
organized are seldom attended by more than a handful and never by the
young. During ALDs, soccer (a youthful activity) always wins in numbers
while our most brilliant thinkers are left to speak to each other! The
intelligentia has therefore also developed an attitude of
'being-in-the-community-but-not-a-part-of-it'. (It is worth noting that
there are more Gambian 'Doctors' in the Washington Metropolitan Area
than in any other part of the U.S.!) Of course the intelligentia does
not only consist of those with the 'Dr.' title in front of their names,
but also a large number of Gambian men and women in the academic and
professional worlds. This latter group has by and large been ignored in
the calculations of the organizational architects having been
overshadowed by their more 'higher ranking', more 'authoritative
sounding titled' counter-parts.
Then of course there are the sub-groups. The religious organizations,
the informal social groups - the 'hangoo kais', the weekly or monthly
family gatherings, the D.J.s and M.C.s who make the dancehalls lively,
the Yai yi kompins who organize Tama programs, the young and wasting
talented brothers who seek guidance (if only we knew how to listen to
their call), our young sisters whose creative energies are being
expended at the Malls, the children who suddenly make us realize that
creating a viable environment/community in which they can grow is no
longer a 'joke thing'. For each one of them that we have lost to the
'jungle out there', they serve as reminders by weighing on our
conscience of our failure to 'do the right thing' by coming together.
A viable community therefore is one in which all aspects of our daily
living are addressed within our community. It is one in which the
economic well-being of the community is addressed. Where are our
thriving businesses? It is one in which the educational needs of the
community are addressed. Where are our Daycare Centers, K-12 Schools,
and our College advisory board? It is one in which the spiritual needs
of the community are addressed. (The Muslim community need to be
commended in the great strides they continue to make to address this
issue. Witness the Dairas, clerics, and organization that they have
produced. The Christian elders in the community and others need to
follow this example.) The social life of the community though well
catered to at parties, ngëntés, weddings, sabars, and so forth, still
needs to be addressed. The very fact that it is the most vibrant aspect
of the community makes it even more vital to the future unity of the
community. Where then is the roof that must house the many talented
Gambians whose latent prowess, be it in Deejaying, Rapping, Dancing,
Singing, Playing musical instruments, Acting or in the technical back-up
that is needed to produce Shows that will one day rival those at the
Kennedy Center? After spending tens of thousands of dollars renting
halls to host the many events we have had, when will we be build The
Gambia House? These and many others are what a community-based
organization ought to be focusing on. We will fail every time we attempt
to deviate from it. Every time we personalize, history shows that we
have lost. Let us learn from the past and move forward with confidence
that victory is but a short step away. Long live Gambians!
-----------================----------
i wish to utilize this conference as a forum in which we begin to talk
to each other rather than at each other (if we talk at all). those who
claim leadership of the various groupings must become part of the
process of untangling ourselves from our own doings. they must be seen
to begin to act in a proactive manner by their constituents to be
working for unity. so why not have a roundtable discussion of the
leaders? let us call the leaders of the foundations, associations,
support groups, religious organizations, soccer associations, educators,
professionals, youth leaders, d.j.s, business leaders (e.g. braiding
salons owners), the embassy (d.c. is strategically too important for us
not to involve our embassy in our affairs. forget the politiking until
we become a viable community!)
that's all for now. i know i have said a mouthful and i apologize it.
long live gambians!
latjor

______________________________________________________
Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 17:06:03 +2000
From: mmjeng@image.dk
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Clinton To Tour Nine African States.
Message-ID: <199801081607.RAA17612@mail.image.dk>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT



President Bill Clinton is expected to tour
nine African states in the first half of 1998, Clinton would travel to Angola,
Congo (Brazzaville), the Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt,
Ethiopia, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe.
His African tour will be preceded by that of his Vice-President
Al Gore to the same countries in the first quarter of this year.

The rest of the news is hiding in the bush but if you are afraid of
the shootings then get it from: http://www.africanews.org/PANA/news/

Greetings
Matarr M. Jeng.













------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 18:25:41 +0300
From: "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
Message-ID: <01bd1c49$addeebe0$9c2385c2@q-tel.qatar.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Mr.Sanyang,
Thanks for the piece, and keep up good work down
there!


Regards Bassss!
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
-

Hi, Malanding and all the Bantaba people,

Thus Sand mining, infracstructure development are all anthropogenic
activities which have been blamed for causing or aggravating coastal
erosion. This cannot be denied but, natural factors such as low
topography,unconsolidated rocks, aggressive hydrodynamic system, and more
importantly sea level rise should be serious looked into, particalarly in
the case of west Africa region.

Malanding, this is done in a big hurry but I think I need to share little
I know in the Senegambia region with all of you. I am curently writing a
short paper on costal erosion in The Gambia.This cannot be available
immediately, because it has to go through academic scrutiny.

Anyway the National Environment Agency (NEA) can be of some help in
providing more recent interventions and the current coastal zone
management paradigm in the Gambia

Thanks




------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 19:43:15 +0300
From: "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: IS IT IN OUR NATURE? - PART 1
Message-ID: <01bd1c54$8418f2a0$9c2385c2@q-tel.qatar.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit


Elakeh!
Even though I am very angry at your insinuation that Sukuru
Kunda,Gambia's premier City, is a village(how could you put it on the same
level as that tiny place.............? Jabbou,please help with the name!),I
must commend you for your effort in revitalizing this very important
subject:"Is It In Our Nature?"

I very sincerely hope you would do justice to the subject,thus addressing
not only the questions raised by Buharry, but also try to account for the
ones recently raised by Latdjor.And to make sure that you can have no excuse
for not exhaustively analyzing this very Gambian desease,I am hereby
providing you with Buharry's original message.

I am sure if anybody could clearly explain to us this Gambian sickness,you
could;what I am however not sure of is whether you, in the process, would
try to pull any Kartong tricks(stuffs) here?! I hope you won't,because
Gambia-l would not allow you to get away with it.But in the mean time,Keep
Up The Good Work Down There and have a great Weekend!

Regards
Bassss!
(The Sukuru Kunda Supreme Alkaloo)
****************************************************************************
********************** Momodou Sidibeh wrote:-


>Unless, I am greatly in error, this question related to the larger problem
>of the inability for Gambians, broadly speaking, to be able to come
>together, united, in order to democratically deal with whatever it is they
>think should be done about their collective predicament. The question was
>originally raised by my fellow Stockholmer, Mr. Momodou Buharry Gassama

> To come to anything near A solution, we have to discuss how our past
>history influences ethnic relations and tribal distrust; how our insistence
>on being persistent victims clouds our judgement of current priorities. We
>have to uncover what anthropological forces, social structures, are
>responsible for the automatic division of gender roles in our society -
>usually to the detriment of women; and why is Gambian nationalism eclipsed
>by Sarahuli, Fula,or Mandinka nationalism or considerations based on age!?
>In part 2 of this topic I will write about some of these problems as they
>were experienced (by me) in the Gambian Organization in Sweden, and I will
>try to answer some of Buharry's criticism.
>
>Lastly, I must thank all list members for honourably ignoring calls and
>claims made by village nationalists from Gunjur and Serre-kunda. I really
>hope that they would understand that your absolute silence is a loud signal
>for them to courageously, and finally, lay down their sticks! :-) :-)
>:-)........
>
>Momodou S. Sidibeh, Kartong/Stockholm.
>***************************************************************************
***
Buharry Gassama wrote:-

Hi!
I have always wondered why we as Gambians are one of most
disorganised group of foreigners in all the countries I have been to
outside Gambia. Why we have difficulties setting up cohesive and
representative organisations. Why in Atlanta (when I lived there) and in
Göteborg here in Sweden we have organisations or nightclubs for Wollofs
and others for Mandinkas. Why Gambian holidays are celebrated based on
tribal lines. Why it is difficult to accept it when one of us prospers.
Why we report fellow Gambians who overstay their visas instead of
helping them. Why we refuse to patronise Gambians who set up businesses.
Why we involve in petty squabbles and fights, backbiting, "taysantays"
etc. instead of channelling our energies towards endeavours that can
improve our lot both in Babylon and back home. Why we ....
Is it in our nature to be jealous? Is it in our nature to be
disorganised? Is it in our nature to petty? OR, are we just lost?
Buharry.



------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 12:13:41 -0500 (EST)
From: David Gilden <dgilden@tiac.net>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Traveling overland, Banjul-Bamako
Message-ID: <l03110701b0da6ba87146@[204.215.135.128]>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Hello,
Happy new year to all,
Soon I will be in the Gambia to study kora (:
I want to go overland to Bamako, and need to
find out the following:
*1 How long will it will take leaving fom Brikama, one day & 1/2 ?
*2 What can expect to pay, including the train at Tamakunda. How long is
the train to Bamako?
*3 What time will I need to leave and what day is the best so that I
connect with
the Seneglease train out of Dakar.
*Will I (Should I) plan on staying over night in Baase?

Thanks for any and all help with planning this adventure.

Abaraka Baake,
Dowda





*Cora Connection Your West African, Manding Music Source*

http://www.drive.net/kora.htm



------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 12:21:00 -0500
From: Ceesay Soffie <Ceesay_Soffie@prc.com>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: fw - pass it on
Message-ID: <C69DB1B2BFFBCF11B5D300000000000152DD6D@Cry1.prc.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain

Hi everybody -

I want to err on the side of caution, but, if it is a hoax, please
excuse me.

Soffie

FYI

WARNING!!!! If you receive an e-mail titled "JOIN THE CREW" DO

NOT open it! It will erase EVERYTHING on your hard drive!

Send this message out to as many people as you can ... this is
a
new virus and not many people know about it!

This message was received this morning from IBM, and the Army
National Guard, please share it with anyone that might access
the
Internet.

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 16:26:27 -0000
From: "tgr@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: "Gambia-L" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Finally, a Gambian paper on the net.
Message-ID: <B0000033605@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sent by "Torstein Grotnes" <tgr@commit.gm>
via Commit



Hello Gambia-L

We are happy to announce a Gambian addition to the growing amount of
newspapers on the web.

The bi-monthly (twice every month) FRESH newspaper is now on the Internet.

--------------
As the first Company in the Gambia the Informer Media Group Company Ltd.
has
introduced a Online version of the bi-monthly newspaper FRESH on the World
Wide Web.
If you have Internet access you can check us out on these addresses for the
first ALL FREE Online edition of FRESH;
http://w1.2220.telia.com/~u222000299
http://home.sol.no/~tgrotnes
If you are a member with Commit in the Gambia, the address is:
http://www.commit.gm

-The Informer Media Group would like to invite any interested parties to
come up with suggestions for changes or content to the FRESH Online
version.

The FRESH paperversion is now sold in one thousand copies around The
Gambia.
The Informer Media Group are welcoming any international advertisers and
interested investors..

Please send any enquiry and comment to the FRESH e-mail address:
lamkins@commit.gm

Address:

The Informer Media Group Company Ltd.
Publishers of FRESH,
The Sports & Entertainment Chronicle,
YMCA opposite MDI, Kanifing, The Gambia
P.O. Box: 2735, Serrekunda, The Gambia , Fax: 225833,




------------------------------

Date: Thu, 08 Jan 1998 12:36:34 -0500
From: habib <hghanim@erols.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: fw - pass it on
Message-ID: <34B50EA2.4255@erols.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

Ceesay Soffie wrote:
>
> Hi everybody -
>
> I want to err on the side of caution, but, if it is a hoax, please
> excuse me.
>
> Soffie
>
> FYI
>
> WARNING!!!! If you receive an e-mail titled "JOIN THE CREW" DO
>
> NOT open it! It will erase EVERYTHING on your hard drive!
>
> Send this message out to as many people as you can ... this is
> a
> new virus and not many people know about it!
>
> This message was received this morning from IBM, and the Army
> National Guard, please share it with anyone that might access
> the
> Internet.

Thanks Soffie
I am sure that was what happened to my old computer.
Habib
--
MZ

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 13:19:02 -0500 (EST)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: Finally, a Gambian paper on the net.
Message-ID: <199801081819.NAA01809@oak.ffr.mtu.edu>

Torstein,
Thanks to you and your colleagues for making this dream come true. I hope there will come a day when daily papers will join the boat.

Malanding


> From GAMBIA-L-owner@u.washington.edu Thu Jan 8 12:31:30 1998
> Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 16:26:27 -0000
> From: "tgr@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
> To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> Subject: Finally, a Gambian paper on the net.
> MIME-Version: 1.0
> Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
> X-To: "Gambia-L" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> X-MSMail-Priority: Normal
> X-Priority: 3
> X-Listprocessor-Version: 8.1 beta -- ListProcessor(tm) by CREN
>
> Sent by "Torstein Grotnes" <tgr@commit.gm>
> via Commit
>
>
>
> Hello Gambia-L
>
> We are happy to announce a Gambian addition to the growing amount of
> newspapers on the web.
>
> The bi-monthly (twice every month) FRESH newspaper is now on the Internet.
>
> --------------
> As the first Company in the Gambia the Informer Media Group Company Ltd.
> has
> introduced a Online version of the bi-monthly newspaper FRESH on the World
> Wide Web.
> If you have Internet access you can check us out on these addresses for the
> first ALL FREE Online edition of FRESH;
> http://w1.2220.telia.com/~u222000299
> http://home.sol.no/~tgrotnes
> If you are a member with Commit in the Gambia, the address is:
> http://www.commit.gm
>
> -The Informer Media Group would like to invite any interested parties to
> come up with suggestions for changes or content to the FRESH Online
> version.
>
> The FRESH paperversion is now sold in one thousand copies around The
> Gambia.
> The Informer Media Group are welcoming any international advertisers and
> interested investors..
>
> Please send any enquiry and comment to the FRESH e-mail address:
> lamkins@commit.gm
>
> Address:
>
> The Informer Media Group Company Ltd.
> Publishers of FRESH,
> The Sports & Entertainment Chronicle,
> YMCA opposite MDI, Kanifing, The Gambia
> P.O. Box: 2735, Serrekunda, The Gambia , Fax: 225833,
>
>
>

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 11:08:45 -0800 (PST)
From: Sarian Loum <Sarian.Loum@Corp.Sun.COM>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: Gambia and The TeleCentres!
Message-ID: <libSDtMail.9801081108.1424.sarian@groucho>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-MD5: OHiRxNOJDR0E1EIUK9R/ZQ==

Sankung,

Can you please enlighten us as to the problems Gamtel is facing with international calls?
Frequently, during conversations to Banjul, phone lines are interrupted or just go dead
and since I like to chat I always have to end up calling two or three times before
concluding my conversation. Its pretty frustrating and annoying to be interrupted like
that. First of all are you guys aware of the problem and is there a plan to remedy the
situation? I don't know if local calls are affected but international calls definitely
are.

regards,

sarian

------------- Begin Forwarded Message -------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 10:49:15 -0800 (PST)
From: Sarian Loum <sarian@groucho>
Subject: Re: Gambia and The TeleCentres!
To: Gampatriots@Corp
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-MD5: 6Sqe/fSi9n1W+DLkfl4vLw==

Bass,

I'm not quite sure how much progress if any, Gamtel has made towards Sankung's speech but
I do know for a fact that quality of service has deteriorated the last several months as
I'm a frequent caller to Banjul and in the middle of conversations phone lines just go
dead or theres an interruption for a minute or two before you can hear the Banjul party
you're talking to. I'm sure if some of you are frequent Banjul callers you would have
already experienced this problem. So I'm not sure what the fault is or went wrong but
Gamtel is experiencing problems with their connectivity. Quality has really gone down,
maybe this is something Sankung can enlighten us about what he thinks the problem is and
if theres any current plan to remedy the situation. I may post this to Gambia-L since
Sankung is not a subscriber to the bush list.

regards,

sarian


> From: "BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
> To: <Gampatriots@Corp>
> Subject: Re: Gambia and The TeleCentres!
> Date: Sun, 28 Dec 1997 18:54:05 +0300
> X-MSMail-Priority: Normal
> X-Priority: 3
> MIME-Version: 1.0
> Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
>
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
>
> "Telecentres - Towards Universal Service",
>
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
>
> Sankung SAWO
> GAMTEL, The Gambia
> Panel #2
>
>
> Mr. Chairman,
>
>
> I am very much pleased to be given the opportunity to address this august
> body on this interesting issue.
>
> Before I go further, let me give a brief description of the geography and
> demography of The Gambia (1993 Statistical Data):
>
> Population = 1,025,867,
> Total area = about 10,000 sq.km,
> Teledensity = 1.4 - 2.0.
>
>
> ITU 'Missing Link Report' contains the recommendation that:
>
> - By the year 2000, each and every individual should be within an easy
> reach of a telecommunication service.
>
> This problably defines what is called "Universal Service".
>
> These are the two main guidelines for GAMTEL as, so far, the sole company
> in the Gambia confered with the responsibility to provide
> telecommunications services -including telematics.
>
> I wish to quote from GAMTEL's 1994 Annual Budget Report:
>
> "GAMTEL's TARGET IS NOT 'A TELEPHONE FOR EVERYBODY' but 'Telephone Access
> and Quality of Service for Everybody'".
>
> Also the Managing Director in his report stated that:
> (GAMTEL) Customers are becoming more sophisticated in their requirements
> for our services and technology. The company must respond by becoming truly
> customer driven and by using all resources to deliver the best possible
> service at the lowest possible cost.
>
> Mr. Chairman, it is thus clear to all of us in the Gambia why GAMTEL
> embarked on setting up more than 20 TeleCentres throughout the Gambia and
> the building of a truly National Infrastructure backbone: namely, a
> state-of-the-art Fiber Optic Cable, about 400km long, along the entire
> length of the country, and a Digital Microwave Radio Link backbone 34mb/s
> in parallel with it. This is what I would regard as the very basis of a
> National Information Infrastructure needed for a National Information
> Highway.
>
> Mr. Chairman, most people in this audience would agree with me that, in
> Africa, our bottleneck to having a Continental Information Highway - or
> Super Highways as it will be in the next century when we have convergence
> of voice, data and video i.e. multimedia services - is the lack of basic
> broadband (multimegabit) telecommunications links in most of the countries
> South of Sahara desert.
>
> But I believe there is a lot to be learnt from the new democratic South
> Africa and most of our countries can benefit from partnerships with this
> shining state. Of course, for us in The Gambia, and GAMTEL in particular,
> we believe that, in terms of communication infrastructure and provision
> (and availability) of services, we are only a step behind South Africa. I
> will compound this statement by the fact that, according to BT and AT&T,
> Gambia (GAMTEL) has the second highest call completion rates in Africa!
>
> Before I left Gambia for this meeting, by boss informed me that, in fact,
> 34MB/s chunk of the fibre backbone is reserved for MultiChannel TV and
> Data.
>
> Mr. Chairman, may I quote again a relevant statement:
>
> The EC Telecoms Commissioner, Martin Bangemann, is quoted by CWI magazine
> that (he) has identified lack of network infrastructure competition as a
> major obstacle to the development of high-speed Pan-European networking.
>
> But whilst Europeans are worrying about competition in infrastructure, in
> the US, the concern is with SERVICES AND APPLICATIONS.
>
> What is our worry in Africa?
>
> Going back to the Gambian situation and the strategies that GAMTEL is
> taking in a match towards the year 2000, I would like to see GAMTEL
> succeeding in building a National Internet network, even before leasing a
> US$65.000 64kbps link for connection to world-wide Internet. GAMTEL has the
> resources to do this and the infrastructure also. GAMTEL, in its own house,
> is standardizing on UNIX and all its computer systems are on UNIX platforms
> with TCP/IP LAN protocol! After all that is what the core of WWI hosts are
> - UNIX based computers, mainly.
>
>
>
> Conservatively, I could say that GAMTEL could provide Email and related
> multimedia services throughout the Gambia, on its multimegabit backbones
> and through its Telecentres, to the majority of the people in the country.
> Plans are already well advanced to set up a national Email system, and
> which in time would also have databases - on finance, economic and
> educational information - this year 1995. The service could be made
> available to all the Telecentres, including those owned by private
> individuals, in order to reach the masses essentially.
>
> In fact, Mr. Chairman, I forgot to mention two value-added network services
> that GAMTEL also provides in the Gambia now, namely a cellular (mobile)
> telephone network and a Packet Switch Data Network (X.25 network). The
> latter is going to b e used for gateway connection of the national Email
> host to X.400 mail servers in the UK and in the USA, and also as an
> alternative access medium.
>
> Before I conclude my speech, let me highlight a very important sector of
> our economies, namely the private sector (enterprises), which I expect to
> be the engine of the African Information highway initiative. Enabled by the
> public sector, especially the Governments, the private sector must take the
> lead in financing the future services.
>
> Mr. Michael Jensen said, in an answer to a question from the floor, that
> one of the main reasons of lack of adequate connectivity of existing
> networks (in Africa) today is low-level of economic activity. Mr.
> Chairmain, I totally agree with the gentleman. I believe that telecom
> companies will no doubt resolve this problem if and when we have high
> trading activities between our countries. This is not the reality now.
>
> Finally, I would like to tell a real story about my own village, where I
> come from, about 30km away from the capital, Banjul: Village name is Nuimi
> Lameng.
>
> First telephone communication ever in this village of 150 households, using
> a mobile (cellular) telephone set with a microphone in December 1993,
> enable villagers to make family 'conference' call with their village folks
> living abroad - e.g. in USA, Europe, etc. A whole family sits around the
> mobile set and communicates with the person at the other end.
>
> Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
>
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
>
> So,what, if any, progress has been made since Mr.Sawo made his that very
> optimistic predictions two years ago?! How connected (email/Internet) has
> Gambia been since then?
>
> A very Happy and Prosperous 1998 to everyone in the Bantabaaa!
>
> Regards Bassss!


------------- End Forwarded Message -------------



------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 15:58:20 -0500 (EST)
From: YAIKAH MARIE JENG <yjeng@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu>
To: Sarian Loum <Sarian.Loum@Corp.Sun.COM>
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>, ;
Subject: Re: Gambia and The TeleCentres!
Message-ID: <Pine.SOL.3.96.980108155618.18153A-100000@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

hi sarian,
this is yaikah just writing to say that i've also experienced the same
thing with my calls back home and it's happened to me quite a few times
already. i hope GAMTEL can figure out what's going because just like
another member said, i also end up calling at least twice just to finish a
conversation.


------------------------------

Date: Fri, 9 Jan 1998 00:41:24 -0000
From: "tgr@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: "Gambia-L" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: Gambian Online papers
Message-ID: <B0000033871@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sent by "Torstein Grotnes" <tgr@commit.gm>
via Commit



Hi Gambia-L.

Resending this intro message...and adding some critisism!!

-------------------------------------
Hello Gambia-L

We are happy to announce a Gambian addition to the growing amount of
newspapers on the web.

The bi-monthly (twice every month) FRESH newspaper is now on the Internet.

--------------
As the first Company in the Gambia the Informer Media Group Company Ltd.
has
introduced a Online version of the bi-monthly newspaper FRESH on the World
Wide Web.
If you have Internet access you can check us out on these addresses for the
first ALL FREE Online edition of FRESH;
http://w1.2220.telia.com/~u222000299
http://home.sol.no/~tgrotnes
If you are a member with Commit in the Gambia, the address is:
http://www.commit.gm

The Informer Media Group would like to invite any interested parties to
come up with suggestions for changes or content to the FRESH Online
version.

The FRESH paperversion is now sold in one thousand copies around The
Gambia.
The Informer Media Group are welcoming any international advertisers and
interested investors..

Please send any enquiry and comment to the FRESH e-mail address:
lamkins@commit.gm

Address:

The Informer Media Group Company Ltd.
Publishers of FRESH,
The Sports & Entertainment Chronicle,
YMCA opposite MDI, Kanifing, The Gambia
P.O. Box: 2735, Serrekunda, The Gambia , Fax: 225833,

----------------------------------------------------------------------


Anybody has any comments on the paper?
Are you able to read it at the addresses?

And why this silence from the Observer-group people on this topic??

Just to make sure;
The reason we believe Observer is NOT on the web is due to two things:
Observer itself and the Observer group.

As a company we cannot put on such a project, without having other people
that are
actually pursuing the topic actively.
If we always have to push and push to get this thing to go through we will
in the end think
"why do we try to do this for these people when they don't even seem to be
able to something about it themselves.?"
I mean, come on, you guys (and girls) are supposed to be a bunch of high
educated fellows with some resources, so this
thing should be a piece of cake!!
It's nothing I would be more happy about than see The Observer going
online, but i demands ACTION from the group.
Just to give you an example; you now know what kind of equipment (MAC)
Observer use. Is it so impossible to try out a system
similar to that for some of you and to spend SOME time developing this
automatic Observer page-converting??
Why do you not ask us any questions if it is possible to do this or that,
or if we can implement any solution you come up with??

COME ON guys and girls.
Is it RAMADAN that takes a knock on you??

Regards,
Tosh "full speed"
Commit

PS. please tell anybody interested in The Gambia about the addresses for
the FRESH Online paper.



------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 20:43:46 -0600
From: Tamsir Mbai <mba4224@etbu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: conference
Message-ID: <1.5.4.16.19980108201956.33bf1688@etbu.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Latjor,
At the very end of your analysis of The Gambian problem, you wrote "i
know i have said a mouthful and i apologize." No apologies needed. When the
time spent in reading a lengthy article is worth the while, then i believe
it is incumbent upon gambia-l to beg for more of such didactic lectures. I
feel your pain!! I feel you, Bro!!!!
Your analysis of our woes and what needs to be done to revolutionize
those woes into virtues is truely magnificent. Often times when we address
issues, we stop at only identifying the problem. In my opinion, the problem
is no mystery to any Gambian. So when you go beyond addressing the problem
to identifying probable solutions, i can only say, bravo.
Much like every Gambian who resides outside the country, i have
experienced first hand the salient points that you raised. Here in Dallas,
we have tried time and time again to confront the issues affecting us, but
more often than not, we come up with nothing more than empty talk. That is
mainly because of the detestable factions that are created as a by-product
of the parent organizations. I don't know how to resolve the situation in
Dallas, so i will refrain from trying to offer advice as to how to go about
doing so on gambia-l. One thing is certain: i will pray for your conference
to be successful. Maybe from there you can offer us guidance as regards how
to tackle the problem in our individual 'necks of the wood.'

DISCLAIMER: I'm not expecting a magic pill for a solution to our many
diverse problems.

Thanx again Latjor for the thorough analysis. I can only hope that gambians
in the D.C area will take time off to attend what could be a milestone in
redirecting our energies into a more fruitful enterprise.

On a belated note, Happy New Year to everyone. Peace to all members of Gambia-l.

It's Tamsir.
It's Tamsir.


------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 22:05:32 EST
From: RABANI <RABANI@aol.com>
To: gambia-l@U.WASHINGTON.EDU
Subject: Re: New member
Message-ID: <3cfe281a.34b593fd@aol.com>
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit

Hi Pa Musa
thanks for the welcome and how are you. I heard that you returned to
theGambia but that was before i could see you. But if you can please email me
at my address so we can catch up.

bye for now

PACO

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 21:28:24 -0600
From: "Katim S. Touray" <dekat@itis.com>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: fw - pass it on
Message-ID: <199801090337.VAA26058@tower.itis.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Hi folks,

i found the "pass it on" posting from Soffie rather interesting. i'm
working on setting up a Web site, and had my graphic designer make a button
called, you guessed it, "Pass It On" ! the idea behind the button is to
enable visitors to the Web site to e-mail their friends and colleagues
about information they found at the site. oh well, so much for
coincidences!!

and i'm glad to find Gambian media checking out the Web. i visited the
"Fresh" Web site, and found it really, well, refreshing! the only thing i
can say is that they should keep up the good work down there, as Bass would
put it.

on a related note, i read Torstein's comments about Observers' slowness in
getting on the Web. i recall writing a two-part article about the Internet
almost 4 years ago, and published ( i was told) by the Observer. the only
reason i said "i was told" is because i am yet to see a copy of any of the
published articles. i never asked for money when i sent the articles to
the paper, and also told myself that if i have to tell them to send me a
copy *before* they send me one, then something was wrong. in the event,
they did not send me a copy. and it's interesting to see all that's going
on the Internet especially in light of the fact that the world wide web
barely got more than a mention in my articles. back then, the Internet
wasn't for the fainthearted!!

other issues i'd like to touch on later include the Education Committee
report. i haven't read that one yet, and hope to do so in the next couple
of days. fact is i'm mega busy, and i sometimes feel really bombed that i
can't jump into the fray. also, Latjors' idea for a conference is a timely
one, as we can always expect from the guy. i suspect he's got a secret
band of secretaries who are at his beck and call. i mean, he has all the
ideas ;-) keep up the good work, folks.

i gotta go. have a great weekend, and best wishes to everyone in the New
Year.

Katim

----------
> From: Ceesay Soffie <Ceesay_Soffie@prc.com>
> To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
<gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> Subject: fw - pass it on
> Date: Thursday, January 08, 1998 11:21 AM
>
> Hi everybody -
>
> I want to err on the side of caution, but, if it is a hoax, please
> excuse me.
>
> Soffie
>
> FYI
>
> WARNING!!!! If you receive an e-mail titled "JOIN THE CREW" DO
>
> NOT open it! It will erase EVERYTHING on your hard drive!
>
> Send this message out to as many people as you can ... this is
> a
> new virus and not many people know about it!
>
> This message was received this morning from IBM, and the Army
> National Guard, please share it with anyone that might access
> the
> Internet.

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 22:27:56 -0600
From: Tamsir Mbai <mba4224@etbu.edu>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: Gambian Online papers
Message-ID: <1.5.4.16.19980108220406.3cafc344@etbu.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Torstein,
Thanx for all the services that you are providing within The
Gambia. These are highly needed services and i commend you for taking the
initiative to do so. I visited the FRESH homepage, and at first glance, i
have to say that it looks beautiful. Unfortunately, i didn't spend enough
time online to be able to critique it. Nonetheless, I was able to read a
couple of articles, one of which was about Coach Alhagie Sillah's interview
with you guys. Thanks a lot again.

It's Tamsir (Gambia-l subscriber).
It's Tamsir.


------------------------------

Date: Fri, 9 Jan 1998 11:28:37 -0600
From: Keretha Cash <kcash@RBVDNR.com>
To: Kimberly McCord <kmccord@RBVDNR.com>,
"Elaine E. Richards"
Subject: RE: Friendship letter
Message-ID: <81F3CC6EBB6FD011917800805FC17836988EA8@panthers.rbvdnr.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed;
boundary="---- =_NextPart_000_01BD1CF1.BB2F57A0"

This message is in MIME format. Since your mail reader does not understand
this format, some or all of this message may not be legible.

------ =_NextPart_000_01BD1CF1.BB2F57A0
Content-Type: text/plain

HAPPY NEW YEAR!

> ----------
> From: Laura Taggart
> Sent: Thursday, January 08, 1998 4:25 PM
> To: Keretha Cash; Bruce Walters; Morris & Jennie Angulo; Jean
> Gardon; Kathleen Roseboom; Patty Swan; Tricia Fredine; Elaine & Dave
> Subject: Fw: Friendship letter
>
>
>
> >> Subject: Friendship letter
>
> >>
> >> > Around The Corner: By Henson Towne
> >> >
> >> > Around the corner I have a friend,
> >> > In this great city that has no end,
> >> > Yet the days go by and weeks rush on,
> >> > And before I know it, a year is gone.
> >> > And I never see my old friends face,
> >> > For life is a swift and terrible race,
> >> > He knows I like him just as well,
> >> > As in the days when I rang his bell,
> >> > And he rang mine.
> >> >
> >> > If, we were younger then,
> >> > And now we are busy, tired men.
> >> > Tired of playing a foolish game,
> >> > Tired of trying to make a name.
> >> > "Tomorrow" I say "I will call on Jim"
> >> > "Just to show that I'm thinking of him."
> >> > But tomorrow comes and tomorrow goes,
> >> > And distance between us grows and grows.
> >> > Around the corner!- yet miles away,
> >> >
> >> > "Here's a telegram sir--"
> >> > "Jim died today."
> >> > And that's what we get and deserve in the end.
> >> > Around the corner, a vanished friend.
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > If you love someone, tell them. Remember always to say what you
> >> > mean.
> >> >
> >> > Never be afraid to express yourself. Take this opportunity to
> tell
> >> someone what they mean to you. Seize the day and have no regrets.
> >> >
> >> > Most importantly, stay close to your friends and family, for they
> >> > have helped make you the person that you are today and are what
> it's
> >> > all about anyway.
> >> >
> >> > Pass this along to your friends. Let it make a difference in your
> >> > day and theirs. The difference between expressing love and
> having
> >> > regrets which may stay around forever.
> >> >
> >> > This is a love chain letter. Within 1 hour you must send it to
> 10
> >> > other people. Within five days you will have a miraculous
> >> > occurrence in your relationships. You will find new love or have
> an
> >> > old love rekindled.
> >> >
> >> > If you do not send it, you will have once again passed up the
> >> > opportunity to do something loving and beautiful and continue
> the
> >> > trend that gives you problems in your relationships.
>
>

Date: Fri, 09 Jan 1998 12:26:13 EST
From: "BOJANG,BUBA" <BBOJANG@MUSIC.TRANSY.EDU>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE Kartong/Gunjur
Message-ID: <09JAN98.13432020.0044.MUSIC@MUSIC.TRANSY.EDU>

Sir,
I tried to send you a reply on this subject through your address but
couldn't get through. Please if you get this message, send me your
your address at bbojang@music.transy.edu and I shall send you my
note.
I am from Gunjur, maybe we know each other. I have a lot to tell you.
Guys,
I appologoze for this private message, it was just that I couldn't get
to him through his address.
Thanks Buba Bojang ( Bada )










------------------------------

Date: Sat, 10 Jan 1998 00:10:58 +0300
From: "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: Gambian Online papers
Message-ID: <01bd1d43$300525e0$a72185c2@q-tel.qatar.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Torstein,
Maybe my criticisms will come later,but ,for now, I have
nothing but praise for both you at Commit and the guys and girls at
FRESH.Its really great that ,finally, there would be a Gambian paper in
Cyberspace.From the look of it,you people have done an impressive job down
there.So,maybe our relucant friend,the Daily Gambian Observer, would now
realize that this Cyber Train will go anyway with or without them being
onboard.

I have gone through all the twelve pages (of text and image) of the present
issue,and I must admit that I was very impressed with both the scope and
dept of the issues it covered.I like among other things the interview they
did with our national coach,Mr.Sillah, in which he analyzed our Scorpions
eleventh hour shocking defeat during the Cabral Cup Tournament.I also like
the progressive and objective manner in which they conducted their
investigation into one of our society's enduring social
institutions,namely,polygamy.

So,all in all,I want to congratulate the people at FRESH for their
courageous embrace of Cyberspace, and Commit for the sterling job they did
in putting the paper on the Web and hoping and praying that the The Daily
Observer people and Us at GambiaNet would soon be able to do the same for
the Observer paper,the present lethargy notwithstanding.

So,all of you out there,Keep Up The Good Work down there!


Regards
Bassss!




>Sent by "Torstein Grotnes" <tgr@commit.gm>
> via Commit
>
>
>
>Hi Gambia-L.
>
>Resending this intro message...and adding some critisism!!
>
>-------------------------------------
>Hello Gambia-L
>
>We are happy to announce a Gambian addition to the growing amount of
>newspapers on the web.
>
>The bi-monthly (twice every month) FRESH newspaper is now on the Internet.
>
>--------------
>As the first Company in the Gambia the Informer Media Group Company Ltd.
>has
>introduced a Online version of the bi-monthly newspaper FRESH on the World
>Wide Web.
>If you have Internet access you can check us out on these addresses for the
>first ALL FREE Online edition of FRESH;
>http://w1.2220.telia.com/~u222000299
>http://home.sol.no/~tgrotnes
>If you are a member with Commit in the Gambia, the address is:
>http://www.commit.gm
>
>


------------------------------

Date: Fri, 9 Jan 1998 18:40:02 EST
From: BobbySil <BobbySil@aol.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: RE Kartong/Gunjur
Message-ID: <aa71922d.34b6b553@aol.com>
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit

BUBA,

WHO IS THIS MESAGE FOR????????????????????????????

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 10 Jan 1998 12:03:43 +0100
From: LaminLams.Bojang@fco.mh.se (LaminLams Bojang)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Introduction
Message-ID: <fc.000f547200195591000f547200195591.195669@fco.mh.se>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

Hello everybody
I am a new member at Stockholm,Sweden
Came from Pirang village , Kombo East
Attende Faraba Banta primary school
Crab Island jr 1975
Muslim high school 1976-81
Hotel school 1982-84 ,Bar and Restaurant
Worked at different hotels in the Gambia
Came to Sweden 1991
now engaged in a four- year program in economics environment and politics
Just gone half way.
Even known as Lang Bojang or Lams
Lams


------------------------------

Date: Sat, 10 Jan 1998 14:38:47 -0500
From: Malick Jagne <jagnem@db.erau.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: New Member
Message-ID: <199801101938.OAA11804@larry.ent.db.erau.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
Content-MD5: 9FlmYFfnd7XaIOy4C4ATKA==

Could u please subscribe Mr Ousman K Manjang to Gambia-L.
His e-mail ad. is manjango@db.erau.edu

Thanks

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 10 Jan 1998 22:01:53 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: New Members
Message-ID: <19980110210202.AAA22368@momodou>
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Greetings,
The following people have recently been added to the Bantaba:
Morro Krubally, Momodou Jasseh, Ebrima M'boob, Lamin Bojang,
Ousman K Manjang and Pa Sallah. We welcome them and look forward
to their contributions.

You can send a brief introduction of yourselves to
gambia-l@u.washington.edu.

Regards
Momodou Camara

*** http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara
"To make friends is easy, just use pure ingredients"***

------------------------------

Date: Sun, 11 Jan 1998 00:18:55 EST
From: LBojang <LBojang@aol.com>
To: Gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: SUBSCRIBE GAMBIA-L Lamin Bojang
Message-ID: <7dec1074.34b85640@aol.com>
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Hi, my name is Lamin Bojang, and I recide in Georgia. I appreciate you adding
me to the list; I will surely try to contribute as frequently as possible.
Thanks

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Date: Sun, 11 Jan 1998 02:42:32 -0500 (EST)
From: mjallow@st6000.sct.edu (Modou Jallow)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Greetings
Message-ID: <9801110742.AA32338@st6000.sct.edu>
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Greetings folks,

I would like to welcome all the new members and also wish *ALL* the
members a successful new year 1998. I hope that the Ramadhan is going
pretty well for those of us undertaking the fast. The days seem to be
passing by very fast - I just realized that we are almost half way
gone.... keep up the good intentions!

Regards,
Moe S. Jallow

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End of GAMBIA-L Digest 102
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