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T O P I C    R E V I E W
Momodou Posted - 10 Sep 2021 : 16:22:39


------------------------------

Date: Mon, 12 Jan 1998 13:07:32 -0500 (EST)
From: mjallow@st6000.sct.edu (Modou Jallow)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: For Dr. Sall of CODESRIA
Message-ID: <9801121807.AA59818@st6000.sct.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
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Momodou Camara, you wrote:
>
> Tomaa,
> I have just spoken to Mr. Mkandawire and he confirmed the
> appointment. He lives a few hundred metres from me here and I met him
> through Dr. Ebrima Sall last year.
>

Hey Tomaa,

Thank you for the response. What a co-incidence that you and Mr.
Mkandawire know each other! For another thing, I didn't even know that
he was residing in Denmark. The last I heard he was in Sweden. Anyway, I
am just glad that you were able to confirm the appointment. Now then,
since you have been so helpful, I would like to ask of you one more favor.
If it is not too much of a burden to you, could you kindly send me his
phone number (or email address) in Denmark via private mail?

As usual, your efforts are always appreciated... and... greetings to the
family.

Regards,
Moe S. Jallow

======================================================================
mjallow@sct.edu mjallow@hayes.com
----------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 12 Jan 1998 19:49:27 +0100
From: Svend Ole Kvilesjo <svendok@online.no>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: New Members
Message-ID: <34BA65B6.6117D60A@online.no>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Hi everyone!

My name is Svend Ole Kvilesjoe (28). I am a web-journalist in the
norwegian newspaper Aftenposten, based in Oslo. From 1992-1994 I lived
in Bansang, The Gambia, working with the youth organization 4H. Its now
operating in 27 villages throughout the country.

I have many good friends in Gambia and have just returned from a four
week visit.
Now I am hard working with a new resource place at Internet, and i will
keep you informed about the progress. The release will hopefully be in a
few weeks.

Anyone who has something to contribute to my Gambia-place at Internet,
please send me a mail. Good photos, stories, news, general information,
spesific information, - I will consider everything!

I am also looking for a person - hopefully in Oslo - who can be able
and villing to teach me the fula-language. I speak some mandinka, but
would really like to learn fula before returning to the Gambia.

Abaraka!

Morro Camara,
alias Svend Ole Kvilesjoe :)

---------------------------------------
Svend Ole Kvilesjoe
Journalist & photographer
OSLO, Norway

Mail: svendok@online.no
URL: http://www.kvilesjo.no

Phone work: +47 2286 4032 or 2286 4411
Phone home: +47 2267 9097
Mobile: +47 90 123 345
----------------------------------------



------------------------------

Date: Mon, 12 Jan 1998 14:12:02 -0500 (EST)
From: mjallow@st6000.sct.edu (Modou Jallow)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Was the Minister in the Gambia?
Message-ID: <9801121912.AA42488@st6000.sct.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

Hello folks,

Apparently , the tour has taken the Honorable Louis Farrakahn to The
Gambia. May I ask your views on the visit??

Please see:
http://www.finalcall.com/worldtour/index.html



Regards,
Moe S. Jallow

=====================================================================
mjallow@sct.edu mjallow@hayes.com
---------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 12 Jan 1998 22:10:19 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: New Members
Message-ID: <19980112211038.AAC12416@momodou>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT

Greetings,
Isatou Sanneh, Marie Darboe and Sulayman Mbenga have all been added
to Bantaba. Welcome to Gambia-l, please send a brief introduction to
gambia-l@u.washington.edu.

Regards
momodou Camara
*** http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara
"To make friends is easy, just use pure ingredients"***

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 12 Jan 1998 23:10:45 +0100
From: "Momodou S Sidibeh" <momodou.sidibeh@stockholm.mail.telia.com>
To: "gambia-l" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: IS IT IN OUR NATURE - PART 2
Message-ID: <199801122225.XAA01211@d1o2.telia.com>
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Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
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TO MY MIND, one of the most fundamental reasons for Africa's economic
stagnation and permanent poltical instability is due to our inability to
build strong, mass-oriented, and representative autonomous organizations.
It will be clear in due course why I hold this belief. In the mean time let
us begin by putting the whole issue in a concrete historical and
gheographical context.
Wherever, a couple of Gambians immigrate, they initially are bound to
socialise, give one another mutual and material support and share in the
sorrows and joys of one another. As other compatriots arrive, the first
individuals play host to them, helping them out through bureaucratic chores
and the basic practical realities of the new cultural environment. But as
the group grows larger the old bonds of national solidarty eventually
weaken as members feel more and more culturally and economically secure in
the new place. The arrival of others belonging to other language groups, or
from the same regions, same schools, help to further weaken the collective
national identity. While everyone formerlly knew everyone else, at some
later point in time, more and more become strangers to one another, to the
extent that efforts at organizing collective activity is hampered by
distrust and individualism in a situation where earlier on, edicts of one
for all and all for one were the guiding principles. This is in general,
how immigrant communities EVERYWHERE evolve and villages develop. However,
the character of the factors hampering organisation will depend on the
historical experiences and the social backgrounds of the individuals
concerned Therefore, what we are talking about here is not about Gambians
in Stockholm or in Washington D.C or in Oslo - or in Doha - per se. What we
are looking at is simply how Gambian society operates in Gambia. So it is
indeed useful, and even necessary, to locate the whole of this discussion
on its natural historical and geographic setting.

I would like to write about what, in my opinion, are some of the
general reasons behind the failures of the autonomous orgainzations of
Gambians, proceeding by taking up those aspects I think Mr. Ndow left out;
and where I have an opinion, I shall venture suggesting what I think could
be done to bring about improvement. One important belief I need to mention
before proceeding is that I do not think that political questions are
ingrained with any measure of absolute truth; a truth which rational
people, through objective investigation, can ultimately discover. I think
it is an instance of maximum naivete to believe that. Whatever truths there
are cannot be more salient than the results obtained through social
practice.

Mr. Latjor Ndow excellent's contribution addresses the issues almost all
organizations of Gambians are confronted with. It seems to me though, that
the Organization of Gambians In Sweden (OGIS) is a special case in that it
has been, more or less dominated, for more than ten years, by a tiny,
effective, group of Gambian revolutionists belonging to the Movement for
Justice in Africa (MOJA-G). This domination no longer obtains, and MOJA
itself has long resorted to hara-kiri as a way of resolving contradictions
spurred on by a devastatingly cheap opportunism and treachery.
Having said that I should begin by directly answering Buharry's criticisms
and say why I think some of these were unfair.
NO, IT IS NOT IN OUR NATURE. One reason is that patriotic, broad-minded,
rational, and democratically inclined Gambian parents CAN bring up
children, who are generous in spirit, free from irrational fears and
superstition, tolerant, intellectually honest, and with an ethnic identity
that celebrates and respects difference rather than promotes societal
discord; children who can be brought up to listen to and respect the
opinions of others and children who, when they have become men and women,
can make up their minds by objectively reasoning on the validity of ideas
at stake without caring whether or not the persons behind the ideas are
imagined or real enemies of their husbands or wives:

Throughout the 80s and into the early 90s, the OGIS had been one of the
most active immigrant organizations in Sweden. It operated a discotheque,
organised children acticvites, cultural events - the most famous of which
has been the yearly arranged Gambian Cultural Week - activities for women,
symposia, debates and film shows. It sponsored week-end trips to either
Oslo or Gothenburg every summer and occasionally invited and sponsored
visiting Gambian artists and musicians to organise exhibitions and perform,
respectively. It invited intellectuals to give lectures on many formerly
current and topical issues of concern to Africans and African-Americans.
(We had Ngugi Wa Thiongo, Professor Abdul al Akalimat - I do not remember
from which US university, and two other African professors, one of them an
expert on Aids working at Rikshospitalet in Copenhagen, and the other Dr.
Felix Konotey Ahulu, a world-famous Ghanain expert on Aids and sickle-cell
anaemia, based in London. The Ogis published a news magazine, the Gambia
Newsletter, which, I am sure, many of you must have known about. In 1993 it
sent a container loaded with medical equipment and other hospital supplies,
worth 100.000 SEK, to the RVH in Gambia, and again just a few months ago it
financed the transportation of a container loaded with technical aids
valued at 250,000 SEK to the Gambian Association of the Physically
Disabled. OGIS was so active and respected by the Swedish authorities that
any group of Africans wanting to organise on any pan-African issue were
advised to involve OGIS members. If nothing else, this, I think shows that
with all our backwardness, with the hosts of predicaments we have, Gambians
can come together and make progressive things happen.
The present inactivity and general laxity in OGIS now is principally the
result of the withdrawal of MOJA members. While some, like myself, are
still involved, most are so disillusioned by their experiences that their
former enthusiasm to organise Gambians is simply gone. After their active
participation, it became obvious that the kind of discipline, dedication,
and sacrifice that running such an orgainzation requires has proved almost
impossible to induce Gambians to undertake. Nevertheless, even during its
most active periods, OGIS co-existed with other less known organizations of
Gambians.

Comparing Ogis with say the Eritreans, as Buharry did, was unfair because
the motivations to organise came from quite diiferent sources. The
thirty-year war with Ethiopia, and internecine battles amongst different
liberation groups produced the highest concentration of nationalist
sentiments amongst all classes and ethnic groups of Eritreans. It was the
searing thirst for national liberation and the threat of this common
external enemy which forced Eritreans, by dint of sheer necessity, to close
their ranks and hold on to one another. Eritrean nationalism was one sealed
in blood, and even after the war it is this experience that still affects
the level of sacrifice they are willing to undergo for their country.
Gambians have never had that kind of violently induced collective bonding.
So our nationalism is one we have to create ourselves, by other means.
Similar reasoning can explain why Ugandans also find it easier to get
along. Theirs has been, unfortunately, bonding produced by a long line of
post-independence tragedy, from Idi Amin Dada, the endless fighting, the
scourge of AIDS, to the present climate of optimism.

Mr. Ndow wrote: as a matter of
> fact, one does not have to be a rocket scientist to identify these. go
> to any 'kampeekaay' and raise the issue of our community's condition and
> you will hear (between sips of attaya of course) some of the most
> brilliant analyses on why we are divided. age, gender, ethnicity,
> educational or religious background all become non-issues when the
> gambian mind goes to work dissecting 'our problems'! the issue then, it
> seems to me, is not our lacking in understanding of the nature of our
> problem. we know it intimately! where we have fallen short has in
devising solutions and implementing them....

But then therein lies our tragedy. I mean that, if our predicament is only
that much difficult to access and assess, why then do we have a problem
devising solutions and implementing them? My understanding being that a
problem is what to do about a predicament. My belief is that what we think
are brilliant analyses are in fact never thorough. If we believe that age,
gender, ethnicity, religious background are causes of our fragmentation (as
they obviously are) I think we need to stretch our logical investigation
further and ask: why is age a predicament? why is gender a predicament?
why ethnicity and religion????? In order to change our present reality we
need to know not only what factors constitute our reality. We must also
know how these factors interact and operate as they influence that reality.
Pinpointing these factors, to my mind, is not the same as analysing them
thoroughly.
Nevertheless, I must declare quickly that I should not pretend to be
able to do that. If this reasoning is convincing, then we would have agreed
on a useful point of departure. (Part 3 follows).

Momodou S Sidibeh, Kartong/Stockholm.



------------------------------

Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 02:43:42 +0100
From: "Momodou S Sidibeh" <momodou.sidibeh@stockholm.mail.telia.com>
To: "gambia-l" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: IS IT IN OUR NATURE?? - PART 3
Message-ID: <199801130154.CAA16700@d1o2.telia.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Added to placing the historical and geographical context in Gambia, I
would like to also say that I will be now and then commuting from realities
in Gambia to the realities of Gambians elsewhere. The points are quite
numerous so I will try to be brief:

1. OUTSIDERS: As was well paraphrased in OGIS constitution, there are those
Gambians who believe they have finally come to the Swedish paradise and
would have nothing to do with their embarassing Gambian past. There are
still others who believe that our undeveloped circumstances are the work of
God and they would not waste their time trying to undo what was the work of
ALLAH. Others feel they are too good to associate with lumpens , and would
have nothing to do with any riff-raffs.
The only way to convince these sort of people is perhaps through activity.

2. POOR EDUCATION: There certainly were coup plots to remove Mojanites from
influential positions in the Executive Committee. But these never amounted
to anything more than bickering. My believe is that in spite of their great
numerical superiority, most Gambians were intimidated by what they felt was
the intellectualism of Mojanites. Serious articulate cases could never be
brought up to garner sufficient support. This has telltale parallels with
how the masses of Gambians define PDOIS, for instance, and even how
ordinary people relate to those considered to be intellectuals. Obviously,
here the problem is not with the people but with those who are eager to get
them organised.

3. INFORMATION: In the old days in Gambia, communities were small and
people devised ingenious ways of spreading information: messengers, talking
drums, coded language, signs and symbols. Technological change and literacy
added the radio and newspapers to these and they became an effective
instrument of coercion and propaganda in the hands of governments. The only
news that was news was always that which served the interest of the state.
Truth, and nothing but the whole truth became a very rare commodity. So the
people created their own information systems, the radio "kang kangs" of
this world. Rumours grow on land where timely, reliable information is not
sown. Gambians in Sweden are world champions in spreading rumours. They
would always talk about "the money". Some would still, jokingly, ask
me...."suma raka! ana halis bi!?" , refering to the of reasonably large
amounts of money OGIS accumulated over the years. 85% of Stockholmers never
pay their membership dues. So most of them have no rights whatsoever, to
the money they are constantly asking about. The failure on the part of the
organisers was that financial reports were rarely given and these occasions
were few and far between. By their inaction, they contributed to the rumour
mongering. Because we are so poor, and because corruption is a real
problem, leaders and people in responsible positions do not only have to be
accountable, but information about national resources ought to be frequent,
comprehensive, and understandable. In our organizations some would stay on
the outside because they would have persuaded themselves that some insiders
are stealing the money. But once information about the money is made
regularly available, they would have one less excuse for staying away. BTW,
the misuse of collective funds in rural village organsations is a rather
widespread problem in Gambia. The reasons, I think, are related to the
social distribution of power.

4. HISTORICAL PRECEDENTS: A major difficulty in our efforts to create
successful autonomous organizations is the fact that historical comparisons
are not available. There is little in our collective experience that
informs us that Fulas, Jolas, Mandinkas, Wollofs, and other ethnic groups
did in fact come together to pursue common ideals; much less to organise
themselves on the basis of equality and mutual respect. The Muslim -soninke
wars were mobilising. But they incidentally (in many cases at any rate)
were made on ethnic lines. Besides, at independence, the major political
parties were also formed and organised on tribal basis, even if the smaller
ethnic groups, it may appear, had the freedom of choice of association with
any of the larger, organised ones.
Here, I think the role of the schools are important. From say, the
fourth grade, pupils should be taught and encouraged to build ideal
associations run by elected classmates. Here the basics of a democratic
tradition can be inculcated by, say, practicing debate, listening to
others, speaking in turns, voting according to beliefs, learning to control
funds, and giving reports, etc...I think ethnic division is a major hurdle
partly because we cannot fall back onto major, historically significant
cases of inter-ethnic solidarity and cooperation. This is far from saying
that these never occured. I am saying instead, that most of us do not know
about them.

5. DIFFICULT CHILDHOOD: The majority of us have experienced admonitions
such as "children should not ask that kind of question", or that "you must
not listen to elders conversing or discussing" or at any rate you are
supposed to be mute even when the elderly say a lot of things you know to
be untrue. Also, threats about djinns (spirits) and others such as "suluwo
kanaale" (bukki baange nyew /the hyena is coming) simply become sources of
future irrational fears and superstitious beliefs. These kind of codes of
conduct are simply destructive to the curiosity of children. Instead of
filling our curious intellect with information at the earliest time
possible, we are sometimes stopped from learning how things fit together.
This way scientific intelligence which is the result of a curious intellect
is often thwarted. We are also taught to supress our opinions as children,
so that by the time we are grown-ups we become experts in supressing the
opinions of others. We are not just unable to listen to others whose views
differ from ours, we cease every chance we have to make sure that they get
no chance of saying something. Should anyone wonder why journalism is one
of the riskiest professions in Africa? Another major difficulty here is
when as children, our language skills remain underdeveloped because we are
often denied speaking without fear in our hearts. I suspect that this
affects us in our communication with others. Where we feel slighted in
discussions or arguments we may tend to take short cuts (instead of
argueing out our case) by heaping insults and invectives on our opponents.
Communication becomes impossible at that point, and the meetings just break
down, for example. (Bass can you say something about this? I think there is
more to it than I have mentioned.)
Superstition simply encourages constant trips to the marabouts and we
learn very early, how to believe things without a shred of evidence. The
mere suspicion that she must have said something wicked about you becomes
the source of the most akward mutual public persecution ("taysantay").

6. INNOCENT ETHNIC BEHAVIOUR: At any one naming ceremony in D.C or Oslo or
Stockholm, you will mostly likely discover that the Gambian public present
is disproportionately representative of the same ethnic group as that of
the hosts. I do not believe that this happens deliberately, i.e through
planning. It simply happens that if your wife and you are Wollof, most of
your acquaintnces, and friends are likely going to be Wollofs as well. So
they form the croud at your child's naming ceremony. In other words, you
unconsciously organise an ethnically biased significant cultural program.
So you can never think of yourself as being tribalist. And that itself is
dangerous enough, because behaviour that is automatic in times of "peace",
is likely to be reinforced, and sanctioned by conscious planning in "war"
time! We can all do something about this right away. Next time you have
such a great programme, you MUST DELIBERATELY invite members of other
ethnic groups, even if they are mere acquaintances. In fact you may begin
by learning a second Gambian language!

I must stop here for tonight! I am simply too tired to continue. I have
just two more paragraphs left. If you however think that I am wasting your
time with so much rubbish, kindly consider my apology as already given.
Good night.
Modou S Sidibeh, Kartong/Stockholm.


------------------------------

Date: Mon, 12 Jan 1998 23:20:56 -0000
From: "archibald.graham@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: Help!!
Message-ID: <B0000035482@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sent by "Archibald H. R. Graham" <archibald.graham@commit.gm>
via Commit


Karafa Badjie

I refer to your following note on the List:

> I am urgently in need of the telephone number of St. Augustine's High
> School in Banjul. Please help as soon as possible if you are in
possession
> of the telephone number.
> My thanks in advance!

You may dial St Augustine on:

229598 or
228128

Regards
Archi


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 03:21:46 +0100
From: "Momodou S Sidibeh" <momodou.sidibeh@stockholm.mail.telia.com>
To: "gambia-l" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: IS IT IN OUR NATURE? PART 1
Message-ID: <199801130233.DAA28516@d1o2.telia.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Elakeh,
Sister Jabou is a good muslim and good muslims do not get angry during
Ramadan. They are forgiving and conciliatory. I am therefore convinced that
Jabou would not come to your aid.
Thank you for supplying me with part of Buharry's questions. I have no
illusions however about rendering justice to this subject, even if I
categorically refuse to be "just at one place". Edward Said says we should
be everywhere, and black people have more reasons than any other people to,
indeed, be everywhere.
But this has taken too much of my time. Thanks to your encouragement, it
is almost done.

keep up the good work down there!
Modou Sidibeh, KARTONG...

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 11:51:29 +0100
From: "Momodou S Sidibeh" <momodou.sidibeh@stockholm.mail.telia.com>
To: "gambia-l" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: IS IT IN OUR NSTURE? - PART 3, CONTINUATION
Message-ID: <199801131126.MAA23579@d1o2.telia.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

A more appropriate sub-heading for point 4 above is Absence of Historical
Precedents.

7. THE SOCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POWER: Mandinka society, like many others, is
well organised structurally. From children at the age of five or six, to
village elders, social roles are designed for everyone. Ultimate power,
however rests in the hands of the elderly men, the women simply playing
consultationary roles. This however is not just because they are elderly.
The significant factor is that elders are the repository of culture, they
know the society's history, its enemies and friends, its totems and taboos.
In short their experience is the ultimate source of wisdom for the klan and
village.
And then came colonialism, the Western model of government and its
institutions, and eventually, so-called democracy. To make matters short, I
am suggesting that democratisation is effectively the process of wresting
power from the hands of the elderly in order to distribute it, somewhat
evenly, in the the society at large. It is one way of stating that
knowledge and wisdom is no longer the private property of the elderly; and
everyone knows that no one gives up power with enthusiastic readiness.
(During the Transition Period, this confusion of roles - the exercise of
traditional power and that wielded by the democratic state - is what
accounts for President Jammeh's famous confrontations with the elders).
That age is a hurdle in building organizations could be looked at from this
perspective. Our society simply accorded respect to those who are older on
the basis of that fact because largely i think these latter have been
thought to be wiser. Now that age does not automatically imply wisdom, we
are faced with giving respect just for the sake of age. I think our society
MUST continue to accord the elderly respect on the basis of age. (That way
we ensure that everyone dies in dignity, among other things). We have to be
innovative in searching for ways of interacting with those who are older in
every possible way without being disrespectful. How we speak to one
another, how we rectify one another are important considerations in this
respect.

8. GENDER CONSIDERATIONS: I only remember that as a child, after being
circumscised and lived in the bush during the process of healing and
initiation into manhood, I was taught the most elaborate and ingenious ways
to insult women: words, symbols, and signs designed to cause tremendous
pain and anguish. I cannot now in retrospect understand why we were being
taught to hurt our mothers and sisters. Was it because our fathers wanted
to sever our close ties with our mothers, knowing that we are more
emotionally attached to them. i.e their own roles as fathers pale into
insignificance when compared to what our mothers endure in our behalf?
We must support all things for the economic empowerment of women...(that is
almost a cliche these days). If the President were me he should do two
things this year: 1. Declare 1998 a year for the FREEDOM FROM VERBAL ABUSE,
and pass legislation banning insults (we must simply learn to direct our
agressions into argueing rather than resorting to verbal violence!), 2: On
Women's day, the men in all families should simply get into the kitchen, do
the laundry, fetch firewood, do the beds, clean up and fetch water! It is
time we practically show our mothers and sisters, just once a year, that we
do appreciate what they do for us by letting them take the day off. If dad
is too old to get into the kitchen, well we the sons and brothers should
ask him to give a special present to mom. We should also ask all the women
in the family to forgive us for all the pain we may have caused them even
if unintentionally.
(In fact I might just send this to the Vice President!! ...:-) :-)

8. INTELLECTUALS...Except for the emergence of PDOIS in Gambia this
century, I think it can be safely claimed that Gambian intellectuals never
in any meaningful way engaged in dialogue with the rest of the population.
Except in the pursuit of narrow private interests, or in the service of the
state the intellectual class distinguished itself by being completely
marginal in public life, always under the shadow of authority and power,
almost always against the fundamental interests of the people. Always aloof
and taciturn, they in fact never did talk to each other openly, much less
to the people for whom they ought to have readily made available their book
knowledge in, say, public lectures...telling the people about the world,
democracy,our history, offering suggestions for solving their problems,
informing them on how governments work, about the law, basic hygiene...man,
you name it! Eventhough Islam caused a lot of blood letting in Gambia
during much of the last 60 years of the 19th century, muslim clerics were
active in spreading their knowledge of the Holy Koran and the Hadith. They
built schools, preached about the kingdom of Allah publicly, and travelled
extensively sharing their knowledge. I think that is one reason why the
homes of Imams are usually crowded even today. Common people simply wish to
get advice and guidance on how to conduct their lives. Gambian
intellectuals need to create similar connections with the people and make
themselves available if they should be respectably looked upon to help in
building and leading autonomous organizations for any noble aims.
In fact it is wishful to think that even in Gambia-l, we are any better.
There is no reason why anyone should believe that academic snobbery does
not exist here... those from Harvard think that by some measure they occupy
a higher pedestal than those from Gambia college and so engage in Oxfordian
snobbery. I do really hope that such a trend is now forever broken. When
Katim initiated this list, and others at columbia, and perhaps elsewhere
made it a reality, a very significant historical landmark was made. For the
first time, Gambian students, academics, professionals, and many other
people exchange views and write about their concerns for Gambia and the
world reasonably well. Well, we should be more than grateful for that. At
the same time, well-educated compatriots such as Katim , Latjor Ndow, Jabou
Joh, Sulayman Nyang, (and many others I do not know about) who paricipate
in discussions and make available their views, beliefs, and comments, and
who have argue with us, not minding our questioning their points of view,
deserve much more thank simple thank yous...they ought to be told that they
are tremendously important sources of inspiration and hope.

Hey, that is all for now, and I got to go.

Momodou S Sidibeh, Kartong/Stockholm.

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 12:16:26 +0100
From: "Momodou S Sidibeh" <momodou.sidibeh@stockholm.mail.telia.com>
To: "gambia-l" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: NEW MEMBERS
Message-ID: <199801131127.MAA23900@d1o2.telia.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Lams and General Mboob, I am ceasing this opportunity to welcome you
heartily to the 'bantaba'. The same applies to all new members.
Cheers,
Momodou Sidibeh.

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 11:05:19 -0600 (CST)
From: Paul Jammeh <st2063@student-mail.jsu.edu>
To: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: SUBSCRIBE GAMBIA-L Lamin Bojang
Message-ID: <Pine.LNX.3.95.980113105603.26423A-100000@student-mail.jsu.edu>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Hi Lamin,
WELCOME ABOARD THE BANTABA. WE HOPE TO HEAR YOUR BEAUTIFUL CONTRIBUTIONS.
THIS IS PAUL JAMMEH IN JACKSONVILLE, ALABAMA OR IN ATLANTA (SMYRNA).
PEACE,
PAUL

On Sun, 11 Jan 1998, LBojang wrote:

> Hi, my name is Lamin Bojang, and I recide in Georgia. I appreciate you adding
> me to the list; I will surely try to contribute as frequently as possible.
> Thanks
>


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 13:26:18 -0500
From: jalibaa <jalibaa@bellatlantic.net>
To: Gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: UPCOMING ISSUE OF JALI BAA
Message-ID: <34BBB1CA.7BAE@bellatlantic.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

WE ARE IN THE PROCESS OF PUBLISHING THE FIRST ISSUE OF JALI BAA-THE
PUBLIC OPINION ORGAN FOR SENEGAMBIA JANUARY 1998.WE ARE CALLING ON
GAMBIANS AND AFRICANS IN GENERAL TO SUBSCRIBE AND SUPPORT THE ORGAN BY
CONTRIBUTING ARTICLES, POSITION PAPERS OF INTEREST TO GENUINE
DEVELOPMENT AS OPPOSE TO MALDEVELOPMENT(HEALTH,POLITICS,ECONOMICS,AND
CULTURE).WE URGE ALL INTERESTED AFRICANS TO ENGAGE US IN STRUGGLE, LET'S
UP THE ANTE, WE CANNOT KEEP ON LIVING UNDER THESE WRETCHED CONDITIONS
ASSOCIATED WITH AFRICAN EXISTENCE. WE MUST "INVENT THE FUTURE".FORWARD
INTO THE 21ST CENTURY WITH REKINDLED CONFIDENCE AND OPTIMISM. FOR
INQUIRES, COMMENTS,CRITICISMS CONTACT US AT: JALI BAA BOX 56436
WASHINTON, DC.20011 OR AT jalibaa@bellatlantic.net

OUS MBENGA

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 16:52:03 -0500 (EST)
From: "N'Deye Marie N'Jie" <njie.1@osu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Internship opportunities, deadline Feb 27 '98 (fwd) (fwd)
Message-ID: <199801132152.QAA11483@postbox.acs.ohio-state.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

>Date: Mon, 12 Jan 1998 22:00:34 -0500 (EST)
>From: "Fatou N'Jie" <gs01fnn@panther.Gsu.EDU>
>Subject: Internship opportunities, deadline Feb 27 '98 (fwd) (fwd)
>To: "N'Della N'Jie" <ndella@iastate.edu>,
> "N'Deye Marie N'Jie" <njie.1@osu.edu>,
> Yasanthi Perera <ychanper@iastate.edu>
>
>
>Deparment of Commerce
>>>National Oceanic and Atmosheric Administration
>>>
>>>Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) is recruiting
>>>undergraduate and graduate students for NOAA internships in the
>>>Washington, DC metropolitan area and in field sites throughout the
>>>country. This ten week program is designed to provide research
>>>experience to college students majoring in biology, environmental science,
>>>oceanic science, astmospheric science, marine science and computer science.
>>>
>>>DATES of the program: June 8-August 14, 1998
>>>
>>>Bonus: Undergraduate students will receive $360 per wk. Graduate
>>>students will receive $450 per wk. Stipends will include a 15%
>>>dislocation allowance based upon appointment location.
>>>
>>>Travel: One round trip ticket from your home or academic institution to
>>>assigned faculty. Reimbursement for distances over 50 miles one way
>>>will be AVAILABLE. Assistance in locating housing will be AVAILABLE.
>>>
>>>Eligibity: Students must be enrolled in an undergarduate or graduate
>>>program, pursing a degree in one of the PHYSICAL OR BIOLOGICAL
>>>sciences. Must be a permanent resident alien or U.S. citizen.
>>>
>>>Apply Now: Interested students should complete an application and
>>>resume by February 27, 1998. Application forms are available in Office of
>>>Multicultural Affairs, Telephone 202-885-3651, Butler 404
>>>
>>>Return Completed Applications to:
>>>ATTN: Harold Rider
>>>ORISE/ETD
>>>P.O. Box 117
>>>Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117
>
>
>
>


------------------------------

Date: Wed, 14 Jan 1998 00:11:50 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: GambiaNet's Progress Report & Response to Recent Inquiries/Comm
Message-ID: <19980113231216.AAB57402@nijii>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT

Dear Gambia-L,
If you may recall, some days ago, Mr.Torstein, the Managing
Director of Commit, the private company that provides Email services
in the Gambia, announced the launching of a Gambian paper on the
Internet.The name of the paper is FRESH, a bi-monthly paper that
intends to specialize mainly in providing Sports and Entertainment
news in the Gambia.

The maiden appearance of a Gambian paper on the Internet is a very
Happy occasion not only for the company that owns that medium, but
also for the Gambian nation. It must also be a very happy occasion
especially for the Gambian diaspora as they constantly struggle to
reconcile between the Need to be physically away from their homeland
and the Want to be regularly informed of the comings and the goings
of this very special place to their hearts. So, we very sincerely
Congratulate and Welcome FRESH for its pioneering presence on the
Internet and hope that we could have with them and Committ, a
workable working relations in the not too distant future towards an
end that would serve their interest, ours and that of our wider
Gambian National Interest.

But as we mentioned above, FRESH is not a paper about Politics and
not about Economics; it is ultimately about Sports and
Entertainment, things that are meant to make us feel good even if
the reality of our lives are not that pretty to watch. Not that
anything is wrong with selling us an escapist medium, only that we
want to highlight the fact that a paper like that can only be an
addition to but certainly cannot be a substitute for an independent,
aggressive and politically and economically oriented paper that has
made it its job to tell us both the good and the bad news about the
political and economic health of our nation.To our mind, that is the
kind of paper we in the diaspora especially need and should want when
considering paying for an Online News Service.

It is because of this fact that we at GambiaNet decided some one year
ago that, by Gambian standards, the paper that comes closest to
meeting these criteria was the country's Daily Observer. And since
then, we have tirelessly worked on the project of bringing this
particular paper to the Internet and are glad to say that the entire
basic infrastructure is all set now. And if it has not been for the
few technical difficulties that our Gambian partner, The Observer
Group, has been facing, the Online Version of this paper would have
been a reality a long time ago.

A quick visit to our Website and a perusal of the impressive Observer
Demos that our technical team has assembled there should make that
demonstrably clear for even the hardened cynic. Once the Online
version of this particular paper is up and running, and hopefully
very soon, especially now that we have finished drafting the Contract
between us and the Observer Group, we would explore the possibility
of bringing the other prominent Gambian papers onbord, especially an
aggressive one like Foroyaa, if possible.

So, we are pleading with all those who have shown interest in this
project to continue to be patient with us as we sort out and try to
overcome the outstanding bottlenecks on our way towards a working and
reliable Observer online news services.

Maybe a complaint is in order here! This Observer Online project has
taken a little bit far too long to complete.That is true no doubt,
but as any Gambian living and working abroad knows too well, the
number of hours and amount of energy that is normally left for us to
use for ourselves in any given day after performing that routine but
delicate balancing act between giving our hundred percent to our
workplaces, our schools and our families is minuscule, at best. And
to squeeze into those few remaining hours of the day and tiny amount
of energy left of us a volunteer work such as we perform at both
Gambia-L and GambiaNet can prove extremely taxing sometimes for
anyone of us.
But all the same, all of us still contribute, albeit at varying
degrees. We do, partly because all of us need and want to be
constantly informed of the latest news in and about our
motherland, and where else could we do that better than in our lovely
Gambia-L?! And also partly because all of us know that the kind of
Gambia our children will inherit tomorrow will largely depend on the
amount of hardwork and sacrifices we the Gambians of today are
prepared to make for our homeland.

This brings to the other reason why we are writing this article.The
Mail that we referred to in our opening paragraph that Mr.Torstein
had sent to the Gambia-L to announce the Launching of the FRESH
newspaper infact contained more than a mere annoucement of that
fact. In a not so subtle manner, he among other things savaged our
competence, our lack of preparedness to make the sacrifices necessary
to finish this observer project, and our partial dependence on his
company, Commit to help train the observer people. But nothing could
be further from the truth, and the facts of the matter are as
follows:-

(a) The only request we have made of Commit to date is to help the
Observer with hardware and software installations and to train a
couple of Observer staff members in the use of the equipment.

(b) We have not thought of asking Commit for technical solutions
because there is no need to.

(c) In our dealings with Commit, they have not (not even once) had to
"push" for us (the "Observer group") to get anything done.

(d) Rather than use the little free time we have experimenting
with implementing an HTML converter on Macs we do not have access to,
we logically decided to buy a Quark to HTML converter priced at under
$100, with our own funds of course.

(e) We pooled our funds to form GambiaNet which will allow the
Observer Online service to be legally provided on a tax-free basis.

(f) We have finished a contract which we have sent to the Observer.

(g) Our volunteerism will ensure that any profits earned by the
project will satisfy the stipulation in our bylaws that profits be
applied towards Gambia-related development initiatives, especially in
education.

(h) We continue to work towards bringing the Observer
online and that the Observer, despite our visits and telephone calls,
has remained a reluctant partner.

(i) If the Observer does not tell us something definite about the
contract within next couple of weeks, we will start looking for
another Gambian paper to bring online.

(j) The URLs (http://www.xsite.net/~c3p0/gambianet/ , the no-frames
version at http://www.isr.umd.edu/~isatou/gambianet and
http://www.xsite.net/~c3p0/gambianet/admin/) point to barebones
testbeds for the final site we have had in place since early last
fall.

(k) It should be noted that the site will provide us the
operational ease and efficiency we all desire given our time
constraints.

So, unless Torstein intended those irresponsible remarks about us as
a huge Ramadan joke, we cannot resist the temptation of concluding
that our friend has not done any meaningful homework on us, else how
could we explain the masochism inherent in his attacking the
intelligence and competence of the shakers of the very platform that
makes his otherwise very boring Emailing services such an exciting
proposition for his customers in the Gambia.

Of course, it has never been our style to either over-react or lose
our good sense of humour; and for that reason, we won't say more than
this on this subject, but we, of course, expect him to reciprocate us
with the kind of courtesy and respect we accord him, his brother and
the company that they run in our country.

We know that even though profit is the main reason why they are in
the Gambia, they are nonetheless contributing to the technical
development of our country, and we like them for it.

And we definitely have no problems whatsoever if Mr.Torstein finds
sending a Gambia paper to the Internet as easy as "a piece of cake"
That is the way it should be, because that is his livelihood and he
can afford to spend much, if not all, of his twenty-four hours on
it, whereas ours is a mixture of hobby and volunteer work on which we
can't afford to spend except a tiny percentage of our spare time.That
is the fundamental difference between our two situations that our
friend either chose not to remember or simply deliberately ignored
when he sent his that message to the Gambia-L.
So, we hope he would in the future show a higher degree of civility
in his dealings with us. And we thank all of you for your patience in
reading this report!

Those of you interested in the observer Online Services but who have
not yet registered, please do so now by sending an Email to Momodou
Camara at :Momodou.Camara@post3.tele.dk


Regards from
Momodou Camara
for GambiaNet Inc.

P.S.
The attachement is Mr.Torstein's original mail to which we have just
responded.

Sent by "Torstein Grotnes" <tgr@commit.gm>
via Commit



Hi Gambia-L.

Resending this intro message...and adding some critisism!!

-------------------------------------
Hello Gambia-L

We are happy to announce a Gambian addition to the growing amount of
newspapers on the web.

The bi-monthly (twice every month) FRESH newspaper is now on the
Internet.

--------------
As the first Company in the Gambia the Informer Media Group Company
Ltd. has introduced a Online version of the bi-monthly newspaper FRESH
on the World Wide Web. If you have Internet access you can check us
out on these addresses for the first ALL FREE Online edition of FRESH;
http://w1.2220.telia.com/~u222000299 http://home.sol.no/~tgrotnes If
you are a member with Commit in the Gambia, the address is:
http://www.commit.gm

The Informer Media Group would like to invite any interested parties
to come up with suggestions for changes or content to the FRESH Online
version.

The FRESH paperversion is now sold in one thousand copies around The
Gambia. The Informer Media Group are welcoming any international
advertisers and interested investors..

Please send any enquiry and comment to the FRESH e-mail address:
lamkins@commit.gm

Address:

The Informer Media Group Company Ltd.
Publishers of FRESH,
The Sports & Entertainment Chronicle,
YMCA opposite MDI, Kanifing, The Gambia
P.O. Box: 2735, Serrekunda, The Gambia , Fax: 225833,

----------------------------------------------------------------------


Anybody has any comments on the paper?
Are you able to read it at the addresses?

And why this silence from the Observer-group people on this topic??

Just to make sure;
The reason we believe Observer is NOT on the web is due to two things:
Observer itself and the Observer group.

As a company we cannot put on such a project, without having other
people that are actually pursuing the topic actively. If we always
have to push and push to get this thing to go through we will in the
end think "why do we try to do this for these people when they don't
even seem to be able to something about it themselves.?" I mean, come
on, you guys (and girls) are supposed to be a bunch of high educated
fellows with some resources, so this thing should be a piece of cake!!
It's nothing I would be more happy about than see The Observer going
online, but i demands ACTION from the group. Just to give you an
example; you now know what kind of equipment (MAC) Observer use. Is it
so impossible to try out a system similar to that for some of you and
to spend SOME time developing this automatic Observer
page-converting?? Why do you not ask us any questions if it is
possible to do this or that, or if we can implement any solution you
come up with??

COME ON guys and girls.
Is it RAMADAN that takes a knock on you??

Regards,
Tosh "full speed"
Commit

PS. please tell anybody interested in The Gambia about the addresses
for the FRESH Online paper.





------------------------------

Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 18:14:02 GMT
From: David Gilden <dgilden@tiac.net>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Taking the Train to Mali
Message-ID: <l03110701b0e15f0ad958@[204.215.135.128]>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Winter greetings to all,

I am going over land to Bamako, starting in the Gambia into 2 weeks.

Does anyone know how much the train will cost
from Tambakunda to Bamako.
What day/time the Senegalise Train comes through Tamba.
Any info at this time would be
greatly appreciated.
Thanks
Dave


*Cora Connection Your West African, Manding Music Source*

http://www.drive.net/kora.htm



------------------------------

Date: Wed, 14 Jan 1998 11:42:16 -0500 (EST)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: msjaiteh@mtu.edu (Malanding S. Jaiteh)
Subject: Gambia Education Support Organization Plan- reminder
Message-ID: <199801141642.LAA08916@aspen.ffr.mtu.edu>
Content-Type: text

This is just a friendly reminder that its been a week since the Gambia
Education Support Organization (GESO) constitution and operation plan
had been sent to all members of Gambia-l for their approval.
To our new members. Just about 1 yr ago a proposal was sent to
Gambia-l to establish an organization for assisting Gambia individuals and
institutions in education. Ain education committee was established and
to develope a plan for this organization. Early this month a final
draft of the plan was submitted to Gambia-l for member approval. It is
hoped that once an approve or not approved not is received from all
members of Gambia-l interested members will be called upon to
register.

So far the education committees drafting team received only 5
responses. We hoped that this do not reflect the true feeling of the
members. Certainly a number of people must be very busy or missed the
posting. To that effect I will once more send the document (its in 2
parts). My apologies to those who received my previous posting.

malanding Jaiteh

ps I thought I might add that the proposal could only be implemented
if people do not show interest and approving or not approving in one
sure way of doing that.



------------------------------

Date: Wed, 14 Jan 1998 11:50:13 -0500 (EST)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
Message-ID: <199801141650.LAA08930@aspen.ffr.mtu.edu>
Content-Type: text

Fafa, thank you for that technical perspective on coastal erosion.
Its good to have experts around. keep up the good work up/down there
as Bassss would say. I hope the ice storm missed your part of the world?

Malanding Jaiteh
>
> Hi, Malanding and all the Bantaba people,
> I have been following the very interesting discussion on coastal erosion
> in The Gambia.
>
> I am a geologist by training and profession and I have been higly involved
> in thinking and trying to seek a sollution if there is any to coastal
> erosion in The Gambia.The theories of geological and geomorphological
> processes of coastal environment are really complex and cannot be dealt
> in this limited time and space.So what I would rather do is to give a
> very brief history of response measures so far taken to combat coastal
> erosion in The Gambia and some general ideas I have gathered trough my
> personal experiece and readings.
>
> The entire coastline of west and central Africa, from Mauritania to Angola
> is retreating at diferential but alarming rates in almost all these
> countries (see UNEP Regional Seas Report and Studies No. 107, 1989).In
> Senegal for example, shoreline retreat at Rufisque has been estimated at
> between 0.45 and 2.46 m/yr (1959 to 1980).As recently as 1997, the
> Sangomar spit that borders the saloum river was been completely cutoff,
> totally
> inundating the village of Jiffere (personal visit to the site in July
> 1997).In The Gambia, studies ( mainly aerial photo interpretation ) have
> indicated a general erosion rate of 1-2m/yr. In Localized severely
> affected areas such as the Banjul muslim cemetery area, Rufisque and
> Jeffere, in senegal and many other areas in the subregion such as the
> victoria beach Lagoes erosion rates are much higher. The Geology
> department of Chiek Anta Diop University in Dakar has carried many
> studies,like wise other parts of the subregion and overseas including
> the US but there is yet no conclusive answer to the problems of coastal
> erosion.
>
> In The Gambia like many parts of the world, several hard and soft
> stabilization efforts were tried but so far the success story is hardly
> told anywhere. Even in the US a lot of failures of beach protection
> efforts have been reported.
>
> In 1957, the Banjul muslim and christian cemetery area suffered from
> flooding during spring tide. Groynes of ruhn palm were constructed with
> concrete pannels as respose . This was latter abandonned and rhun palm
> piles connected by timber walling and ruhn palm sheet piles, jetted into
> the sand secured
> to the walling by means of nailing was tried. Both efforts have worked for
> sometime and latter failed as we observe today.A combination of groynes
> and
> boulder stone pitching retained in gabions have also been tried, with no
> success.
>
> Resently the muslim community heaped some boulder stones on the seaward
> side of the muslim cemetery and this also could not work. This effort was
> followed by another gabion basket (bolders in coated wire mesh ) method of
> protection which is also failing.The most recent effort is UNDP sponsured
> effort which has been mentioned in one of the e-mail messages.
>
> The above is just a synopsys of the problems and efforts. The biggest
> question is which stabilization method is most suitable and why all these=
> =20
> methods are failig. All methods
> including concrete wall have failed in many places and infact such
> methods have a very serious side effects of the sea attacking the two ends
> of the
> wall and thus aggravating erosion at these sides.There are several
> examples of
> this which I cannot give here, but the various sea wall trials in
> Rufisque, in senegal are typical and near home examples. The sea wall at
> Radio Syd is proved to only hold the sea temporally, The effect of end
> erosion can be seen there too.
>
> Therefore the issue of coastal erosion is global and the causes are not
> very clear in many places including the Gambia and Senegal. The current
> trend of thought is better coastal zone planning, i.e the planning and
> management of human activities in the coastal environment. Relocation of
> human activities including settlements are some of the solutions in some
> literature.This is a very costly venture but it may worth thinking and
> planning at an early stage. The village of Jeferre, in Senegal was forced
> to relocate by nature within a very short period of time. The US
> Geological Survey
> report " Coasts in Crisis " by S.J. Williams, K Dodd, and K. K.Gohn, 1991
> suggested that the first step needed to manage the coastal crisis is" to
> understand our- coast better, to build a solid foundation of earth-science
> data on coastal processes and evolution". =20
>
> Thus Sand mining, infracstructure development are all anthropogenic
> activities which have been blamed for causing or aggravating coastal
> erosion. This cannot be denied but, natural factors such as low
> topography,unconsolidated rocks, aggressive hydrodynamic system, and more
> importantly sea level rise should be serious looked into, particalarly in
> the case of west Africa region.
>
> Malanding, this is done in a big hurry but I think I need to share little
> I know in the Senegambia region with all of you. I am curently writing a
> short paper on costal erosion in The Gambia.This cannot be available
> immediately, because it has to go through academic scrutiny.
>
> Anyway the National Environment Agency (NEA) can be of some help in
> providing more recent interventions and the current coastal zone
> management paradigm in the Gambia =20
>
> Thanks
>
> Fafa
> On Wed, 7 Jan 1998, Malanding S. Jaiteh wrote:
>
> >=20
> > > From GAMBIA-L-owner@u.washington.edu Wed Jan 7 03:48:57 1998
> > > Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 09:49:26 +0100
> > > From: =3D?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=3DF8rn_Nordam?=3D <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
> > > To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.wa=
> shington.edu>
> > > Subject: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
> > > MIME-Version: 1.0
> > > Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
> > > X-To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> > > X-Priority: 3
> > > X-Listprocessor-Version: 8.1 beta -- ListProcessor(tm) by CREN
> > >=20
> > > Jabou, I made the same experience when I visited Gambia in November.
> > > Some oceanographers must come to gambia and advice the government. As I
> > > see it they have started to prevent just outside Banjul where you have
> > > the cementary. But at the same time the coast, and the beach where I wa=
> s
> > > staying this time was taken. The beachbar at the Hotel Atlantic was nea=
> r
> > > to disappear one night. Banjul will one day (if not allready) be an
> > > island. The Sea want to break through, and if the government want to
> > > preserve, they need experts. All the sand taken from the beaches go to
> > > all the building-activities, because the tradition is building with
> > > concrete-blocks.(Which I will change with my house in Gambia) The more
> > > houses, the more sand they transport from your beaches. And because of
> > > the big lorries going to Gunjur-Kartong, to bring sand from the beach,
> > > the main road is totally spoiled. The government got a foreign loan, (a=
> s
> > > I was told on the news in november) to build a new road from
> > > Serekunda/Bijilo to Gunjur along the coastline. What that will come to
> > > mean of exploitation of natural ressources, or rich gambians to buy the
> > > costal area for housing in the long run, or better conditions for the
> > > people living down there, better transport, better service etc., will b=
> e
> > > interesting to follow. How the government will balance the development
> > > and the preservation of nature and natural ressources at the same time=
> ,
> > > is interesting for a foreigner as me, who can se the result in Denmark
> > > from just thinking of progressing the infra-structure, and now have to
> > > repair from the investments in the past. It all helps to give a better
> > > NGP !! First take the ressources and build the towns, the roads and all
> > > that, and now "repair" the nature again. Just a comment Asbj=F8rn.
> > =20
> >=20
> > I thank Jabou and Asbjorn for bringing up the Gambia beach problem. Let m=
> e start by saying that I am no expert in this subject. I happen to be a con=
> cern somebody having the feeling that somthing is not right.=20
> >=20
> > Jabou some legend say that Banjul will be consumed by the sea. I am no b=
> eliever in legend but I think the threat to Banjul and the surrounding is n=
> o doubt real and I believe it is well understood by the government. What is=
> not clear is whether the real cause of it is undertood. Theories say that =
> sand mining is the major cause followed by construction particularly on the=
> south Bank of the estuary. However several attempts have been made to miti=
> gate the problem including banning sand mining between Banjul and Bijilo p=
> erhaps even beyond. What is interesting is that the problem seems to be inc=
> reasing. The only things that really seem to work (only for a short while t=
> hough) is the artificial Barriers on the beach. I will call expert to corre=
> ct me on this. If that seems to be the case then we might want to look beyo=
> nd sand mining on the south Bank. I think that big picture approach may giv=
> e us better understanding. A complete study of ocean and river currents on =
> both sides of the !
> > !
> > !
> > !
> > !
> > river.=20
> >=20
> > I say that one reason. For quite sometime now (perhaps 20 yrs) there is a=
> growing sand bank near Barra around the ferry terminal and former GPMB de=
> pot. The problem was so serious that the Ferry terminal had to be regularly=
> dredged. That problem could have come from the construction of those stuct=
> ures. If so then one may ask, where would all that sand be if the structure=
> s were never built? Perhap we could hydrologists and physicists in the Bant=
> aba who are familar with the area to put in their thoughts.=20
> >=20
> > Asbjorn, one can understand your feelings about the potential impacts of =
> the new road. Let me say that there is no land between Tanjeh and Banjul th=
> at one can call "really public" except for a few patches. Also unless thing=
> s changed since 1994, much of the lands in the area along the proposed road=
> had been purchased by affluent Gambians aware of the plans since early 199=
> 0s. The road had been part of the tourist development plan and almost all t=
> he beach (except a few strips) had been desinated Tourist Develepment Area.=
> Talking of Natural Resources, it is sad to say,there is very little of tha=
> t.
> >=20
> > Malanding jaiteh
> >=20
> >=20
>


------------------------------

Date: Wed, 14 Jan 1998 13:19:59 -0500 (EST)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: msjaiteh@mtu.edu
Subject: GESO plan for approval
Message-ID: <199801141819.NAA09088@aspen.ffr.mtu.edu>

Folks, this is part 1 of 2 of the GESO document for gambia-l approval. My apologies if you received it earlier on.


malanding jaiteh



Gambia Education Support Organization


I. Mission

The mission of the Gambia Education Support Organization is to provide
assistance to Gambians and Gambian institutions in education in the Gambia.
A vital part of the Organization's mission will be to become a medium through
which intellectual, logistic and material resources of Gambians and friends
of the Gambia can be utilized to improve education in the Gambia.

To this end, the Organization will:

Provide intellectual, material, logistic and other support to individuals and
institutions in need at all levels of education in the Gambia.

Facilitate access to information and resources on education and research in the
Gambia.

Improve coordination and communication among members to support education in
the Gambia.

Develop and maintain a responsive and financially stable organization.

II. Organization structure:

General Membership

Membership to the Organization is open to all (Gambians and non-Gambians). There
shall be two categories of membership, voting and Honorary members. Voting
members will be required to pay annual membership fees as determined by the
Organization. All voting members will have the right to vote and run for office.
Members who fail to fulfill their obligations will cease to have the above rights.
All other contributors who do not fall under this category shall become Honarary
members.

Executive Committee

The Organization will conduct its overall activity through the Executive Committee.
The Executive Committee will oversee the planning and implementation of the
Organization's activities. The Committee will be voted in every two years. It shall
consist of the Executive Director, Deputy Executive Director, ex-Executive
Director, three Zone Coordinators (Gamabia, Europe and North America), and a
Treasurer.

Zones/Regions

Geographically the Organization will be divided to three zones: Europe, North America
and Gambia. Members in other regions can chose their zone of affiliation at their
convenience. Zone Coordinators will oversee the Organization's activities in their
zones and will act and speak on behalf of their zones.

III The Constitution

Article I The Name of the Organization.

The name of the organization (hereinafter referred to as the Organization) shall be
the GAMBIA EDUCATION SUPPORT ORGANIZATION, GESO.

Article II Location and Address

The Principal office of the organization shall be at the address of the current GESO
Exective Director.

Article III Membership

Section 1. Membership of the Organization is open to all (Gambians and
non-Gambians). There shall be two categories of membership, voting and honorary
members. Voting members shall be required to pay annual membership fees to be
determined by the the Executive Committee in consultation with the Financial and
Fund Raising Committee. All voting members will have the right to vote and
run for office. Contributors who do not wish to be active members in the Organization
shall become honorary members.

Section 2. The membership year is the calendar year ending December 31.

Article IV Membership fees

The following membership fee will be charged accordingly.

US $10 per month for non-student members residing in North America, Europe,
Australia New Zealand and Japan.

US $2.5 adult members elsewhere including Gambia.

US $5 Students in North America, Europe, Australia and Japan.

US $1.00 for students elsewhere.

Article V The Executive Committee

Section 1. The Executive Committee, subject always to the provisions of this
Constitution, shall have general supervision and control of the management and
administration of the affairs of GESO and may exercise all or any of the power of
GESO including, without limitation , power to make donations of, and accept
donations to, the funds of GESO and to invest and reinvest its funds in any
property, real or personal, to such extent deem advisable PROVIDED,
however, no such donation shall be made to any member and no such
investment shall be made in the securities of, and no loan made to, any member.

Section 2. Special meetings of the Executive Committee may be called by the
Executive Director or by any four (4) or more of the officers.

Section 3. A quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the Executive
Committee shall constitute a simple majority of officers.

Section 4. Every officer shall be entitled to vote at any meeting on all matters.

Section 5. The Executive Director shall give notice of every meeting of the
Executive Committee to each officer at least one (1) week before the meeting.
Notice of the Executive Committee meetings must specify the purpose.

Article VI Officers

Section 1. The officers of GESO shall be a Executive Director, Deputy Executive
Director, a Treasurer, and three Zone Coordinators, one from each Zone. An Executive
Committee shall consist of all the officers, who shall have the power of a Board of
Directors and other such members that the Executive Committee shall appoint to serve
from time to time at the discretion of the Committee.

Section 2. The Executive Director, Deputy Executive Director and Treasure shall
be elected by the members as specified in Article IX. Zone Coordinators shall be
chosen by their Zones to represent them on Executive Committee.

Section 3. The Executive Committee may designate one or more individuals as
temporary officers, to continue as such during such term as shall be specified by the
Executive Committee. Such temporary officers need not be members of the Executive
Committee.

Section 4. Any temporary officer appointed by the Executive Committee may be
removed from office by the Executive Committee when his or her duties as prescribed
by Executive Committee, has been executed out as determined by the Executive
Committee.

Section 5. Any officer may resign by filing with the Recording Secretary or filed
with the Executive Committee a written resignation, which shall take effect on being
filed or at such other time as may be prescribed therein. Any vacancy at any time
existing in the Executive Committee or in any other office or in any committee may be
filled by the Executive Committee at any meeting and the person chosen to fill the
vacancy shall hold office for no more than 120 days or until an elected member is
chosen. Any officer may be removed from office with just cause by the Executive
Committee following notice, which states her/his removal, is proposed.

Article VII Powers and Duties of officers

Section 1. The Executive Director shall be the chief executive officer of GESO,
shall preside at all meetings of GESO and of the Executive Committee, and shall have
the general and active management of the affairs of the Executive Committee, subject
to the approval and direction of the Executive Committee.

Section 2. In the absence of the Executive Director, or in case of her/his death,
resignation, incapacity or refusal to act, the duties pertaining to the office shall,
until the election of new Executive Director, be performed by the Deputy Executive
Director, or in the event of the absence, death, resignation, incapacity, or refusal
to act by the Deputy Executive Director, the Executive Committee shall designate one
member to act.

Section 3. The Treasurer shall be in charge of all moneys of GESO, shall collect
all moneys due to GESO, shall have the power to accept donations to GESO and
(subject to the control of the Executive Committee) shall deposit the funds of GESO in
its bank account, and may invest the funds of GESO subject to the prior approval
of the Executive Committee. She/he shall keep such books as may be necessary for
the duties of her/his office, which at all times shall be open to the Executive
Committee. She/he shall report in detail annually, and as often as required by the
Executive Committee, all moneys collected, expended or invested, all outstanding
obligation of GESO, and such other matters as may be deemed proper in connection with
her/his office, and shall perform such other duties as the Executive Director or
the Executive Committee may require. She/he shall keep updated records of the
membership and updated records of the mailing lists with the help of the
Recording and Corresponding Secretary.

Section 4. The Deputy Executive Director and three (3) Zone Coordinators of the
Executive Committee shall be responsible for convening standing and ad hoc
Committees, and responsible for conference programs, minutes from Executive
Committee and Annual meetings, and other GESO documents. All four (4) shall
perform such other duties as the Executive Director and the Executive Committee may
require.

Section 5. The Executive shall nominate the appointment of a Recording and
Correspondence Secretary for approval by the General membersip within sixty (60)
days from the day of nomination. The Recording and Correspondenece Secretary can
not vote in the Executive Committee.

Section 6. The primary responsibility of the Recording and Corresponding Secretary
shall be to act as liaison between GESO and outside organizations; the secretary
shall insure that notification of GESO meetings be posted. The Recording and
Corresponding Secretary shall also assist the Treasurer in updating mailing lists.
She/he shall conduct all correspondence of GESO and assist the Executive Director
in maintaining contact with the standing committees. She/he shall perform such
other duties as the Executive Director and the Executive Committee of GESO may
require.

Section 7. Zone Coordinators. Geographically, the Organization will be divided to
three zones, Europe, North America and Gambia. Members in other regions can
chose their zone of affiliation at their convenience. Each Zone Coordinator will
oversee Organizational activities in their zones and will act and speak on behalf
of their zones.

Article VIII Committees

The Executive Committee and the Executive Director may from time to time appoint
such committees, consisting of such persons, for such purposes and with such
powers as the Executive Committee or the Executive Director shall determine. The
members of any such committees shall serve at the discretion of the Executive
Committee. A member of the Executive Committee shall serve on, but need not chair,
each committee, and shall act as liaison between the committee and the Executive
Committee.

Ad hoc Committees (Working Committees) The Working Committee members will
be appointed by the Executive Committee on need bases. The Working Committees
will be technical working groups to prepare activity plans, or implement activities.
The Working Committee will be dissolved at the end of their assignment or at the
discretion of the Executive Committee.

Financial/Fundraising Committee: The Organizations will raise the necessary
finances through membership fees, individual contributions and fundraisers. The
Committee will be the Organization's official fundraiser. The committee shall
coordinate all fundraising activities and will consist of four members. The Committee
will be responsible to consult with Executive Committee to determine annual
membership dues. If this Organization is dissolved all its net funds will be donated
to an institution or institutions of its choice.

Audit Unit
This unit will help ensure that the organization's funds are used as specified.
The unit will comprise of a Chairperson and two committee members. Members of the
committee will be appointed by the Executive Committee as needed. The unit will
prepare its own operational document to be approved by the General membership.


Article IX Elections and Nominations

Section 1 A four (4) member Elections and Nomination committee shall be chosen
by the general membership to oversee and supervise nominations and elections of
officials. The Elections and Nominations Committee shall elect one (1) of its
members to serve as head of the Committee. Members of this committee can not run
for any other office during their tenure as election officials. The committee
shall have final say on election results.

Section 2. The Nomination and Election Committee shall request suggestions from
the members for nominations for the GESO'S officers at least two (2) months before
elections. The Committee shall devise and mail to the voting members a proposed
slate of nominees at least thirty (30) days prior to the annual meeting.
Biographical sketches, together with optional statement of intent consisting
of no more than one hundred words, shall accompany all nominations. All nominations
shall also submit a statement to the Committee on Nominations of their willingness to
serve.

Section 3. All elections shall be held by ballot and candidates receiving the
largest vote cast shall be considered elected. In the case of ties, there shall be
another vote between the two top contenders.

Section 4. A Executive Director shall be elected every two (2) years and shall
serve in the two succeeding years as Executive Director. The term of the Executive
Director shall be two years.

Section 5. The Deputy Executive Director, Treasurer and Zonal Coordinators shall
be elected every other year to a two-year term.

Section 6. The term of the office shall begin on the first Moday after the first
day of January end on the third Monday of December. Each officer shall serve a
maximum of two terms in the office.


Article X Checks, Notes, Drafts and Other Instruments

The treasurer must draw up checks, Notes, Drafts, and other Instruments for the
payment of money drawn or endorsed in the name of GESO but he or she should
not sign it. The signatories are the Executive Director and two (2) other Executive
Committee members besides the Treasurer. Neither the Executive Director nor other
members shall sign any such instrument as foresaid unless authorized by the
Executive Committee to do so.


Article XI Fiscal Year

The Fiscal year of GESO shall be the year ending with the thirty-first (31) day of
December of each year.

Article XII Amendments

Section 1. All proposed amemndments to the Constitution, together with comments
and recommendations of the officers of GESO shall be submitted to all voting
members for ballot by postal or electronic mail.

Section 2. A two third majority of the members returning their ballots within thirty
(30) days of the date of mailing of the proposed amendment(s) shall amend the
Constitution

Article XIII Agreement of GESO

The provisions of the Agreement of GESO as they from time to time exist are a part
of this Constitution. We, whose names are hereto sunscribed, do, by this agreement,
associate ourselves with the intention of forming an organization under the General
Laws of ...

Address:





1   L A T E S T    R E P L I E S    (Newest First)
Momodou Posted - 10 Sep 2021 : 16:22:59

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 11:14:57 -0500 (EST)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: msjaiteh@mtu.edu (Malanding S. Jaiteh)
Subject: GESO plan
Message-ID: <199801151614.LAA01033@oak.ffr.mtu.edu>
Content-Type: text


I understand that did not receive part 1 of the GESO document I sent
wednesday 1-14-98. If so please find below otherwise delete!

malanding jaiteh

part 1.

Gambia Education Support Organization

I. Mission

The mission of the Gambia Education Support Organization is to provide
assistance to Gambians and Gambian institutions in education in the Gambia.
A vital part of the Organization's mission will be to become a medium through
which intellectual, logistic and material resources of Gambians and friends
of the Gambia can be utilized to improve education in the Gambia.

To this end, the Organization will:

Provide intellectual, material, logistic and other support to individuals and
institutions in need at all levels of education in the Gambia.

Facilitate access to information and resources on education and research in
the Gambia.

Improve coordination and communication among members to support education in
the Gambia.

Develop and maintain a responsive and financially stable organization.

II. Organizational structure:

General Membership

Membership to the Organization is open to all(Gambians and non-Gambians).
There shall be two categories of membership, voting-and non-voting members.
Non-voting members are one-time contributors. Voting members will be required
to pay annual membership fees as determined by the Organization. All voting
members will have the right to vote and run for office. Members who fail to
fulfill their obligations will cease to have the above rights.

Executive Committee

The Organization will conduct its overall activity through the Executive Committee.
The Executive Committee will oversee the planning and implementation of the
Organization's activities. The Committee will be voted in every two years. It
shall consist of the Executive Director, Deputy Executive Director, ex-Executive
Director, three Zone Coordinators (Gambia, Europe and America), and a Treasurer.

Zones/Regions

Geographically the Organization will be divided to three zones: Europe,
North America and Gambia. Members in other regions can chose their zone of
affiliation at their convenience. Zone Coordinators will oversee Organizational
activities in their zones and will act and speak on behave of their zones.

Nomination and Election Committee

A three member Nomination and Election committee shall be chosen to oversee
and supervise nominations and elections of officials. The committee shall be
independent from all other committees in the Organization and will have final
say on election results.

The Constitution


Article I Name

The name of the organization (hereinafter referred to as the Organization)
shall be the GAMBIA EDUCATION SUPPORT ORGANIZATION, GESO.

Article II Location and Address

The Principal office of the organization shall be at the address of the
current GESO Executive Director.

Article III Membership

section 1. membership of the Organization is open to all (Gambians and non-
Gambians). There shall be two categories of membership, voting and honorary
members. Voting members shall be required to pay annual membership fees to be
determined by the Executive Committee in consultation with the
Financial/Fund Raising Committee. All voting members will have the right
to vote and run for office. Contributors who do not wish to active members
in the organization
shall be given honorary membership.

Section 2. The membership year is the calendar year ending December 31.

Article IV Membership fees

The annual membership fees shall be determined by the Financial Committee in
consultation with the Executive Committee.

The following membership fee will be charged accordingly.

US $10 per month for adult members residing in North America, Europe,
Australia and Japan.

US $2.5 adult members elsewhere including Gambia.

US $5 Students in North America, Europe, Australia and Japan.

US $1.00 for students living elsewhere.

Article V The Executive Committee

Section 1. The Executive Committee, subject always to the provisions of these
by-laws, shall have general supervision and control of the management and
administration of the affairs of GESO and may exercise all or any of the power
of GESO including, without limitation , power to make donations of, and accept
donations to, the funds of GESO and to invest and reinvest its funds in any
property, real or personal, to such extent deem advisable PROVIDED, HOWEVER,
no such donation shall be made to any member and no such investment shall be
made in the securities of, and no loan made to, any member.

Section 2. Special meetings of the Executive Committee may be called by the
Executive Director or by any five (5) or more of the officers.

Section 3. A quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the
Executive Committee shall constitute a majority of officers.

Section 4. Every officer shall be entitled to vote at any meetings on all
matters.

Section 5. The Executive Director shall give notice of every meeting of
the Executive Committee to each officer at least one (1) week before the
meeting. Notice of the Executive Council meetings must specify the purpose.

Article VI Officers

Section 1. The officers of GESO shall be a Executive Director, Deputy
Executive Director, a Treasurer, and a Recording Secretary, Corresponding
Secretary, four Representative-at-Large, one from each Zone. An Executive
Council shall consist of all the officers, who shall have the power of a Board
of Directors and in addition, be editors of GESO Newsletter, Chairs of
standing or ad-hoc committees, and other such members that the Executive
Council shall appoint to serve from time to time at the discretion of the
Council.

Section 2. The Executive Director, Deputy Executive Director, Treasurer,
Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, and Representative-at-Large
shall be elected by the members as specified in Article VII. They shall hold
office until their respective successors are chosen.

Section 3. The Executive Council may designate one or more individuals as
temporary officers, to continue as such during such term as shall be specified
by the Executive Council. Such temporary officers need not be members of the
Executive Council.

Section 4. Any temporary officer appointed by the Executive Council may be
removed from office by the Executive Council when his or her duties as
prescribed by Executive Council, has been executed out as determined by the
Executive Council.

Section 5. Any officer may resign by filing with the Recording Secretary or
filed with the Executive Council a written resignation, which shall take
effect on being filed or at such other time as may be prescribed therein. Any
vacancy at any time existing in the Executive Council or in any other office
or in any committee may be filled by the Executive Council at any meeting and
the person chosen to fill the vacancy shall hold office, except as in these
by-laws provided, until the next annual meeting of the members and his/her
successor is chosen. Any officer may be removed from office with just cause by
the Executive Council following notice, which states his/her removal, is
proposed.

Article VII Powers and Duties of officers

Section 1. The Executive Director shall be the chief executive officer of
GESO, shall preside at all meetings of GESO and of the Executive Council, and
shall have the general and active management of the affairs of the Executive
Council, subject to the approval and direction of the Executive Council.

Section 2. In the absence of the Executive Director, or in case of his/her
death, resignation, incapacity or refusal to act, the duties pertaining to the
office shall, until the election of new Executive Director, be performed by
the Deputy Executive Director, or in the event of the absence, death,
resignation, incapacity, or refusal to act by the Deputy Executive Director,
the Executive Council shall designate one member to act.

Section 3. The Treasurer shall be in charge of all moneys of GESO, shall
collect all moneys due to GESO, shall have the power to accept donations to
GESO and (subject to the control of the Executive Council) shall deposit the
funds of GESO in its bank account, and may invest the funds of GESO subject to
the prior approval of the Executive Council. He/She shall keep such books as
may be necessary for the duties of his/her office, which at all times shall be
open to the Executive Council. He/she shall report in detail annually, and as
often as required by the Executive Council, all moneys collected, expended or
invested, all outstanding obligation of GESO, and such other matters as may be
deemed proper in connection with his/her office, and shall perform such other
duties as the Executive Director or the Executive Council may require. He/she
shall keep updated records of the membership and updated records of the
mailing lists with the help of the Corresponding Secretary.

Section 4. The Deputy Executive Director and three (3) Member-at-Large of
the Executive Council shall be responsible for convening standing and ad hoc
Committees, and responsible for conference programs, minutes from Executive
Council and Annual meetings, and other GESO documents. All four (4) shall
perform such other duties as the Executive Director and the Executive Council
may require.

Section 5. The Recording Secretary shall keep a record of all meetings and
correspondence of GESO and act when requested as secretary of any committee.

Section 6. The primary responsibility of the Corresponding Secretary shall be
to act as liaison between GESO and outside organizations; the secretary shall
insure that notification of GESO meetings be posted in other organizations'
Newsletters. The Corresponding Secretary shall also assist the Treasurer in
updating mailing lists and assist the editor of the Newsletter as needed.
He/she shall conduct all correspondence of GESO and assist the Executive
Director in maintaining contact with the standing committees. He/she shall
perform such other duties as the Executive Director and the Executive Council
of GESO may require.

Section 7. Zone Coordinators: Geographically the Organization will be
divided to four zones: Europe, America Canada and Gambia. Members in other
region can chose their zone of affiliation at their convenience. Each zone
will have a committee of five and shall be coordinated by zonal Coordinators.
Each Coordinator will oversee Organizational activities in their zones and
will act and speak on behave of their zones.
Section 8. Ex-Executive Director: The responsibility of the ex-Executive
Director shall be to facilitate smooth transition from one Executive
Committees to another. The role is largely advisory and would only vote within
the committee to break a tie.



Article VIII Committees

The Executive Council and the Executive Director may from time to time appoint
such committees, consisting of such persons, for such purposes and with such
powers as the Executive Council or the Executive Director shall determine. The
members of any such committees shall serve at the discretion of the Executive
Council. A member of the Executive Council shall serve on, but need not chair,
each committee, and shall act as liaison between the committee and the
Executive Council.

Ad hoc Committees (Working Committees) The Working Committee members will be
appointed by the Executive Committee on need bases. The Working Committees
will be technical working groups to prepare activity plans, or implement
activities. The Working Committee will be dissolved at the end of their
assignment or at the discretion of the Executive Committee.

Financial/Fund Raising Committee: The Organizations will raise the necessary
finances through membership fees, individual contributions and fundraisers.
The Committee will be the Organization's official fund raiser. The committee
shall coordinate all Fund Raising activities and will consist of four members.
The Committee will be responsible to consult with Executive Council to
determine annual membership dues. If this Organization is dissolved all its
net funds will be donated to an institution or institutions of its choice.

Audit Unit
This unit will help ensure that the organization's funds are used as
specified. The unit will comprise of a Chairperson and two committee members.
Members of the committee will be voted every two years and shall not
concurrently hold any other positions within the organization. The unit will
prepare its own operational document to be approved by the General membership.


Article IX Elections and Nominations

Section 1 There shall be a Nominating Committee of six (6) voting members,
four (4) of whom shall be nominated with their consent by a majority vote of
those present and voting at the annual meeting of GESO. Nominations for these
positions shall be made only from the floor. The new officers of GESO shall
appoint the additional two members no later than four (4) months following the
annual meeting. The Nominating Committee shall elect one (1) of its members to
serve as head of the Committee.

Section 2. The Nominating and Election Committee shall request suggestions
from the members for nominations for the GESO'S officers at least two (2)
months before the annual meeting. The Committee shall devise and mail to the
voting members a proposed slate of nominees at least thirty (30) days prior to
the annual meeting. Biographical sketches, together with optional statement of
intent consisting of no more than one hundred words, shall accompany all
nominations. All nominations shall also submit a statement to the Committee on
Nominations of their willingness to serve. The general body shall choose a
four member nominating and election committee every two years. Members of this
committee cannot run for any other office during their tenure as election
officials. The committee shall prepare their own working document to be
approved by the general membership. They will be independent from other
committees in the Organization and will have final say in on election results.


Section 3. All elections shall be held by ballot and candidates receiving
the largest vote cast shall be considered elected. In the case of ties, the
Executive Director shall cast another vote.

Section 4. A Executive Director-elect shall be elected every two (2) years
and shall serve in the two succeeding years as Executive Director. The term of
the Executive Director shall be two years.

Section 5. The Deputy Executive Director, Treasurer, Recording Secretary,
Corresponding Secretary, and Representative-at-Large shall be elected every
other year to a two-year term.

Section 6. The term of the office shall begin and end at the annual meeting.
Each officer shall serve a maximum of two terms in the office.


Article X Checks, Notes, Drafts and Other Instruments

The treasurer must draw up checks, Notes, Drafts, and other Instruments for
the payment of money drawn or endorsed in the name of GESO but he or she
should not sign it. The signatories are the Executive Director and two (2)
other Executive Council members besides the Treasurer. Neither the Executive
Director nor other members shall sign any such instrument as foresaid unless
authorized by the Executive Council to do so.



Article XI Fiscal Year

The Fiscal year of GESO shall be the year ending with the thirty-first (31) day
of December of each year.

Article XII Amendments

Section 1. All proposed amendments to the by-laws, together with comments and
recommendations of the officers of GESO shall be submitted to all voting members
for ballot by postal or electronic mail.

Section 2. A two third majority of the members returning their ballots within
thirty (30) days of the date of mailing of the proposed amendment(s) shall amend
the Constitution.

Article XIII Agreement of GESO

The provisions of the Agreement of GESO as they from time to time exist are a part
of these Constitution. We, whose names are hereto subscribed, do, by this agreement,
associate ourselves with the intention of forming an organization under the
General Laws of ...


------------------------------

Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 17:56:02 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: New Member
Message-ID: <19980115165642.AAA65762@nijii>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT

Greetings,
Dr M K Cham has been added to the Bantaba. Welcome to Gambia-l Dr.
Cham. We look forward to your contributions, you can send a brief
introduction to gambia-l@u.washington.edu.

Regards
Momodou Camara



*** http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara
"To make friends is easy, just use pure ingredients"***

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 10:44:08 -0000
From: "tgr@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: "Gambia-L" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: FRESH Online
Message-ID: <B0000037313@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sent by "Torstein Grotnes" <tgr@commit.gm>
via Commit



Hello Gambia-L

Due to a little incompatability between Internet Explorer and Netscape
4 pages was shown blank from any user using Netscape.
The errors has been fixed and you should now be able to enjoy all the 16
pages
of this FREE online edition of FRESH.

For new members of Gambia-L I am resending the introduction information

Regards,
Tosh, Commit
The Gambia

-----------------------------------------
We are happy to announce a Gambian addition to the growing amount of
newspapers on the web.

The bi-monthly (twice every month) FRESH newspaper is now on the Internet.

--------------
As the first Company in the Gambia the Informer Media Group Company Ltd.
has introduced a Online version of the bi-monthly newspaper FRESH on the
World
Wide Web.
If you have Internet access you can check us out on these addresses for the
first ALL FREE Online edition of FRESH;
http://w1.2220.telia.com/~u222000299
http://home.sol.no/~tgrotnes
If you are a member with Commit in the Gambia, the address is:
http://www.commit.gm

The Informer Media Group would like to invite any interested parties to
come up with suggestions for changes or content to the FRESH Online
version.

The FRESH paperversion is now sold in one thousand copies around The
Gambia.
The Informer Media Group are welcoming any international advertisers and
interested investors.

Please send any enquiry and comment to the FRESH e-mail address:
lamkins@commit.gm

Address:

The Informer Media Group Company Ltd.
Publishers of FRESH,
The Sports & Entertainment Chronicle,
YMCA opposite MDI, Kanifing, The Gambia
P.O. Box: 2735, Serrekunda, The Gambia , Fax: 225833,

----------------------------------------------------------------------




------------------------------

Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 13:09:16 -0500 (EST)
From: ABDOU <at137@columbia.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Address Change.
Message-ID: <Pine.SUN.3.95L.980115130800.25157E-100000@terve.cc.columbia.edu>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Hi folks,
Please hereafter send all email meant for me to abdou@thorn.net.
The address abdou@cs.columbia.edu is no longer active.
Thanks,
-Abdou.

*******************************************************************************
A.TOURAY
Computer Science
Columbia University
New York, NY 10027

MY URL ON THE WWW= http://www.cc.columbia.edu/~at137

A FINITE IN A LAND OF INFINITY.
SEEKING BUT THE REACHABLE.
I WANDER AND I WONDER.
ALAS, ALL RESPITE IS FINAL.
*******************************************************************************



------------------------------

Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 16:31:44 -0500 (EST)
From: mjallow@st6000.sct.edu (Modou Jallow)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Subscription request
Message-ID: <9801152131.AA58486@st6000.sct.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

Hello subscription managers,

Kindly subscribe an old friend and former classmate at what used to
be the greatest high school in the Gambia during that time: GAMBIA HIGH
SCHOOL.

The friend's name is ABDOUL SALAAM AL-HASSAN SECKA and his
email address in the Gambia is GCCI@delphi.com.

Your efforts do not go unappreciated. Thank you.

Regards,
Moe S. Jallow



------------------------------

Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 18:54:22 PST
From: "latjor ndow" <latjor@hotmail.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: new member
Message-ID: <19980116025422.1239.qmail@hotmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain

greetings:
ABDOUL SALAAM AL-HASSAN SECKA has been added to the list. welcome to our
bantaba and please send a brief introduction to the group. our address
is: gambia-l@u.washington.edu

welcome all new members.
latjor

______________________________________________________
Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 10:23:39 +0200 (EET)
From: edi sidibeh <lha7edsi@kyamk.fi>
To: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: re subcribtion
Message-ID: <Pine.LNX.3.96.980116101503.20551A-100000@it4.kyamk.fi>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Sir
Could you please include Mr Abdoulie Sidibeh on the list of
members abdoulis@evitech.fi
thanks


------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 09:51:31 +0100 (MET)
From: v5bubbad@ulmo.stud.slu.se (Buba Badjie)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu,
"GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
Message-ID: <199801160851.JAA11488@ulmo.stud.slu.se>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Hej Folkes!
The issue of the eroding beaches is of great importance to the future of The=
=20
tiny Gambia and I thank all of you who have in one way or the other=20
contributed in the discussions so far.
However the danger still is hanging over our heads and the fight to correct=
=20
the causes or atleast understand them should be given high priority by the=
=20
government and the people of the gambia.
A lot of efforts have been made so far but as most of the gambias have now=
=20
noticed ,the results are nothing to boast about.
So my question now is ,How prepared and what plans of action do we have in=
=20
the gambia, say if the banjul high way is washed away?
What do we do if the capital cannot be protected from the rising water=
levels?
I think it is high time to think and plan strategically, because gambia does=
=20
not have the resources to change this global problem.I appeal to the=20
government and the experts of the gambia to take this matter seriously (=20
think about it when building important gorvernment complexes), and to the=20
rest of us to make environmental problems a priority ,if we want to secure=
=20
a better gambia for the future generations.
Keep the debate alive !!!!!

Buba Badjieo resAt 11:50 AM 14/1/98, Malanding S. Jaiteh wrote:
>Fafa, thank you for that technical perspective on coastal erosion.=20
>Its good to have experts around. keep up the good work up/down there
>as Bassss would say. I hope the ice storm missed your part of the world?
>
>Malanding Jaiteh
>>=20
>> Hi, Malanding and all the Bantaba people,
>> I have been following the very interesting discussion on coastal erosion
>> in The Gambia.
>>=20
>> I am a geologist by training and profession and I have been higly=
involved
>> in thinking and trying to seek a sollution if there is any to coastal
>> erosion in The Gambia.The theories of geological and geomorphological
>> processes of coastal environment are really complex and cannot be dealt
>> in this limited time and space.So what I would rather do is to give a
>> very brief history of response measures so far taken to combat coastal
>> erosion in The Gambia and some general ideas I have gathered trough my
>> personal experiece and readings.
>>=20
>> The entire coastline of west and central Africa, from Mauritania to=
Angola
>> is retreating at diferential but alarming rates in almost all these
>> countries (see UNEP Regional Seas Report and Studies No. 107, 1989).In
>> Senegal for example, shoreline retreat at Rufisque has been estimated at
>> between 0.45 and 2.46 m/yr (1959 to 1980).As recently as 1997, the
>> Sangomar spit that borders the saloum river was been completely cutoff,
>> totally
>> inundating the village of Jiffere (personal visit to the site in July
>> 1997).In The Gambia, studies ( mainly aerial photo interpretation ) have
>> indicated a general erosion rate of 1-2m/yr. In Localized severely
>> affected areas such as the Banjul muslim cemetery area, Rufisque and
>> Jeffere, in senegal and many other areas in the subregion such as the
>> victoria beach Lagoes erosion rates are much higher. The Geology
>> department of Chiek Anta Diop University in Dakar has carried many
>> studies,like wise other parts of the subregion and overseas including
>> the US but there is yet no conclusive answer to the problems of coastal
>> erosion.
>>=20
>> In The Gambia like many parts of the world, several hard and soft
>> stabilization efforts were tried but so far the success story is hardly
>> told anywhere. Even in the US a lot of failures of beach protection
>> efforts have been reported.
>>=20
>> In 1957, the Banjul muslim and christian cemetery area suffered from
>> flooding during spring tide. Groynes of ruhn palm were constructed with
>> concrete pannels as respose . This was latter abandonned and rhun palm
>> piles connected by timber walling and ruhn palm sheet piles, jetted into
>> the sand secured
>> to the walling by means of nailing was tried. Both efforts have worked=
for
>> sometime and latter failed as we observe today.A combination of groynes
>> and
>> boulder stone pitching retained in gabions have also been tried, with no
>> success.
>>=20
>> Resently the muslim community heaped some boulder stones on the seaward
>> side of the muslim cemetery and this also could not work. This effort was
>> followed by another gabion basket (bolders in coated wire mesh ) method=
of
>> protection which is also failing.The most recent effort is UNDP sponsured
>> effort which has been mentioned in one of the e-mail messages.
>>=20
>> The above is just a synopsys of the problems and efforts. The biggest
>> question is which stabilization method is most suitable and why all=
these=3D
>> =3D20
>> methods are failig. All methods
>> including concrete wall have failed in many places and infact such
>> methods have a very serious side effects of the sea attacking the two=
ends
>> of the
>> wall and thus aggravating erosion at these sides.There are several
>> examples of
>> this which I cannot give here, but the various sea wall trials in
>> Rufisque, in senegal are typical and near home examples. The sea wall at
>> Radio Syd is proved to only hold the sea temporally, The effect of end
>> erosion can be seen there too.
>>=20
>> Therefore the issue of coastal erosion is global and the causes are not
>> very clear in many places including the Gambia and Senegal. The current
>> trend of thought is better coastal zone planning, i.e the planning and
>> management of human activities in the coastal environment. Relocation of
>> human activities including settlements are some of the solutions in some
>> literature.This is a very costly venture but it may worth thinking and
>> planning at an early stage. The village of Jeferre, in Senegal was forced
>> to relocate by nature within a very short period of time. The US
>> Geological Survey
>> report " Coasts in Crisis " by S.J. Williams, K Dodd, and K. K.Gohn, 1991
>> suggested that the first step needed to manage the coastal crisis is" to
>> understand our- coast better, to build a solid foundation of=
earth-science
>> data on coastal processes and evolution". =3D20
>>=20
>> Thus Sand mining, infracstructure development are all anthropogenic
>> activities which have been blamed for causing or aggravating coastal
>> erosion. This cannot be denied but, natural factors such as low
>> topography,unconsolidated rocks, aggressive hydrodynamic system, and more
>> importantly sea level rise should be serious looked into, particalarly in
>> the case of west Africa region.
>>=20
>> Malanding, this is done in a big hurry but I think I need to share little
>> I know in the Senegambia region with all of you. I am curently writing a
>> short paper on costal erosion in The Gambia.This cannot be available
>> immediately, because it has to go through academic scrutiny.
>>=20
>> Anyway the National Environment Agency (NEA) can be of some help in
>> providing more recent interventions and the current coastal zone
>> management paradigm in the Gambia =3D20
>>=20
>> Thanks
>>=20
>> Fafa
>> On Wed, 7 Jan 1998, Malanding S. Jaiteh wrote:
>>=20
>> >=3D20
>> > > From GAMBIA-L-owner@u.washington.edu Wed Jan 7 03:48:57 1998
>> > > Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 09:49:26 +0100
>> > > From: =3D3D?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=3D3DF8rn_Nordam?=3D3D=
<asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
>> > > To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List=
<gambia-l@u.wa=3D
>> shington.edu>
>> > > Subject: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
>> > > MIME-Version: 1.0
>> > > Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
>> > > X-To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
>> > > X-Priority: 3
>> > > X-Listprocessor-Version: 8.1 beta -- ListProcessor(tm) by CREN
>> > >=3D20
>> > > Jabou, I made the same experience when I visited Gambia in November.
>> > > Some oceanographers must come to gambia and advice the government. As=
I
>> > > see it they have started to prevent just outside Banjul where you=
have
>> > > the cementary. But at the same time the coast, and the beach where I=
wa=3D
>> s
>> > > staying this time was taken. The beachbar at the Hotel Atlantic was=
nea=3D
>> r
>> > > to disappear one night. Banjul will one day (if not allready) be an
>> > > island. The Sea want to break through, and if the government want to
>> > > preserve, they need experts. All the sand taken from the beaches go=
to
>> > > all the building-activities, because the tradition is building with
>> > > concrete-blocks.(Which I will change with my house in Gambia) The=
more
>> > > houses, the more sand they transport from your beaches. And because=
of
>> > > the big lorries going to Gunjur-Kartong, to bring sand from the=
beach,
>> > > the main road is totally spoiled. The government got a foreign loan,=
(a=3D
>> s
>> > > I was told on the news in november) to build a new road from
>> > > Serekunda/Bijilo to Gunjur along the coastline. What that will come=
to
>> > > mean of exploitation of natural ressources, or rich gambians to buy=
the
>> > > costal area for housing in the long run, or better conditions for the
>> > > people living down there, better transport, better service etc., will=
b=3D
>> e
>> > > interesting to follow. How the government will balance the=
development
>> > > and the preservation of nature and natural ressources at the same=
time=3D
>> ,
>> > > is interesting for a foreigner as me, who can se the result in=
Denmark
>> > > from just thinking of progressing the infra-structure, and now have=
to
>> > > repair from the investments in the past. It all helps to give a=
better
>> > > NGP !! First take the ressources and build the towns, the roads and=
all
>> > > that, and now "repair" the nature again. Just a comment Asbj=3DF8rn.
>> > =3D20
>> >=3D20
>> > I thank Jabou and Asbjorn for bringing up the Gambia beach problem. Let=
m=3D
>> e start by saying that I am no expert in this subject. I happen to be a=
con=3D
>> cern somebody having the feeling that somthing is not right.=3D20
>> >=3D20
>> > Jabou some legend say that Banjul will be consumed by the sea. I am no=
b=3D
>> eliever in legend but I think the threat to Banjul and the surrounding is=
n=3D
>> o doubt real and I believe it is well understood by the government. What=
is=3D
>> not clear is whether the real cause of it is undertood. Theories say=
that =3D
>> sand mining is the major cause followed by construction particularly on=
the=3D
>> south Bank of the estuary. However several attempts have been made to=
miti=3D
>> gate the problem including banning sand mining between Banjul and Bijilo=
p=3D
>> erhaps even beyond. What is interesting is that the problem seems to be=
inc=3D
>> reasing. The only things that really seem to work (only for a short while=
t=3D
>> hough) is the artificial Barriers on the beach. I will call expert to=
corre=3D
>> ct me on this. If that seems to be the case then we might want to look=
beyo=3D
>> nd sand mining on the south Bank. I think that big picture approach may=
giv=3D
>> e us better understanding. A complete study of ocean and river currents=
on =3D
>> both sides of the !
>> > !
>> > !
>> > !
>> > !
>> > river.=3D20
>> >=3D20
>> > I say that one reason. For quite sometime now (perhaps 20 yrs) there is=
a=3D
>> growing sand bank near Barra around the ferry terminal and former GPMB=
de=3D
>> pot. The problem was so serious that the Ferry terminal had to be=
regularly=3D
>> dredged. That problem could have come from the construction of those=
stuct=3D
>> ures. If so then one may ask, where would all that sand be if the=
structure=3D
>> s were never built? Perhap we could hydrologists and physicists in the=
Bant=3D
>> aba who are familar with the area to put in their thoughts.=3D20
>> >=3D20
>> > Asbjorn, one can understand your feelings about the potential impacts=
of =3D
>> the new road. Let me say that there is no land between Tanjeh and Banjul=
th=3D
>> at one can call "really public" except for a few patches. Also unless=
thing=3D
>> s changed since 1994, much of the lands in the area along the proposed=
road=3D
>> had been purchased by affluent Gambians aware of the plans since early=
199=3D
>> 0s. The road had been part of the tourist development plan and almost all=
t=3D
>> he beach (except a few strips) had been desinated Tourist Develepment=
Area.=3D
>> Talking of Natural Resources, it is sad to say,there is very little of=
tha=3D
>> t.
>> >=3D20
>> > Malanding jaiteh
>> >=3D20
>> >=3D20
>>=20
>
>
>
=10 @=80


------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 04:33:05 PST
From: "Omar Gibba" <ojgibba@hotmail.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: subscribe!
Message-ID: <19980116123305.12585.qmail@hotmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain

Kindly put my friend, Saikou Marong on the list. His mailing address is:

smarong@hotmail.com

peace,

Omar Jibba (O.J)

______________________________________________________
Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 12:05:32 -0400 (AST)
From: Fafa Sanyang <fsanyang@is2.dal.ca>
To: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
Message-ID: <Pine.A41.3.95.980116104953.138344A-100000@is2.dal.ca>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII
Content-Transfer-Encoding: QUOTED-PRINTABLE

Hi Buba,

Your concern is well taken and I think it is the right way of thinking
that I have seen in this Bantaba people. Their concern is The Gambia and
Africa as a whole. May God bless all the Bantaba people.

As I mentioned before, coastal erosion is a serious global environmental
problem, which has not been easy to control. I was reading a report from
US Geological Survey and J R Clarks book on coastal zone management
yesterday. These are all recent materials, 1996 and they are all talking
about the same thing - the failure and more problematic nature of hard
stabilization ( groins, sea walls , revetments gabion baskets etc). The
current thinking is towards soft stablization means such as beach
nourishment i.e puttig sand from deposition areas to the more seriously
eroding area. This method have less repacurtions as compared to the
concrete sea walls and the like but non are ever lasting solutions.

Therefore my recommendation, without hesitation would be to
look into the management of human activities in the coastal area. A better
planning of the coastal zone is required. There are some Gambian coastal
zone management experts around, such as Abdou Oujamai Gibba, in Norway who
are subscribers to this Bantaba, and who can share their experience in The
Ganbia given the oppurtunity.
One of way for such planning was what we ( several government and
municipal, and quassigovernment, planners, geologists, engineers, and
economists ) have recommended in the " Strategies for Integrated Coastal
Zone Management in The Gambia ".( 1996)unpublished is to plan and enforce
a setback line. That is to say to disallow any human activity within say=20
50 or 100 or 500 meters from the high water mark i.e the high tide mark.
To determine this setbact line a lot of work is required because you must
determine accurately the rate of erosion, (up - to- date) at all
the areas of the coastline, and also put other urgent socio-economic
factors into consideration. For example you cannot put a port or ferry
terminal at 50 or 500 metres away from the sea front.

So the bottomline here is:=20

1. Sealevel rise and coastal erosion and deposition are natural
phenomena which have occured in the past, several times in geologic
history and are bound to occur again. So the worry to me is not coastal
erosion, because that must happen and the more we try control it the more=
=20
problems we get. The worry or the problem then is the management of
humans. It is well known that San Francisco is on a transform fault and
earthquakes are bound to hit at any time. But can the San Franciscans be
relocated even if all the financial and other economic conditions are
taken cared of. So there are some ethical problems in takling even=20
devastating environment problems.

2. Therefore while we have to continue to find a solution to the erosion
problems in the already built up areas, we have to be also thinking of=20
relocation. For example I would I advise Radio Syd relocate, rather
than trying to continue protecting itself. More than 80 miilion
dollars are spent almost yearly to protect or replenish Miami Beaches.have =
=20
Banjul is a potential area to be inundated due to the predicted human
aggravated sea level rise. So both government and private individuals
should be aware of this in feature development and putting up your
expensive private properties. =20

Thanks and lets put heads together for more ideas perticularly on
management issues. It it time to call for
ideas from experts sich as Amadou Wadda at Delft and Abdou Gibba in Norway
( Bergin University - I hope I got the spelling right )

Fafa

On Fri, 16 Jan
1998, Buba Badjie wrote:

> Hej Folkes!
> The issue of the eroding beaches is of great importance to the future of =
The=20
> tiny Gambia and I thank all of you who have in one way or the other=20
> contributed in the discussions so far.
> However the danger still is hanging over our heads and the fight to corre=
ct=20
> the causes or atleast understand them should be given high priority by th=
e=20
> government and the people of the gambia.
> A lot of efforts have been made so far but as most of the gambias have no=
w=20
> noticed ,the results are nothing to boast about.
> So my question now is ,How prepared and what plans of action do we have=
in=20
> the gambia, say if the banjul high way is washed away?
> What do we do if the capital cannot be protected from the rising water l=
evels?
> I think it is high time to think and plan strategically, because gambia d=
oes=20
> not have the resources to change this global problem.I appeal to the=20
> government and the experts of the gambia to take this matter seriously (=
=20
> think about it when building important gorvernment complexes), and to the=
=20
> rest of us to make environmental problems a priority ,if we want to secu=
re=20
> a better gambia for the future generations.
> Keep the debate alive !!!!!
>=20
> Buba Badjieo resAt 11:50 AM 14/1/98, Malanding S. Jaiteh wrote:
> >Fafa, thank you for that technical perspective on coastal erosion.=20
> >Its good to have experts around. keep up the good work up/down there
> >as Bassss would say. I hope the ice storm missed your part of the world?
> >
> >Malanding Jaiteh
> >>=20
> >> Hi, Malanding and all the Bantaba people,
> >> I have been following the very interesting discussion on coastal erosi=
on
> >> in The Gambia.
> >>=20
> >> I am a geologist by training and profession and I have been higly invo=
lved
> >> in thinking and trying to seek a sollution if there is any to coastal
> >> erosion in The Gambia.The theories of geological and geomorphological
> >> processes of coastal environment are really complex and cannot be deal=
t
> >> in this limited time and space.So what I would rather do is to give a
> >> very brief history of response measures so far taken to combat coastal
> >> erosion in The Gambia and some general ideas I have gathered trough my
> >> personal experiece and readings.
> >>=20
> >> The entire coastline of west and central Africa, from Mauritania to An=
gola
> >> is retreating at diferential but alarming rates in almost all these
> >> countries (see UNEP Regional Seas Report and Studies No. 107, 1989).In
> >> Senegal for example, shoreline retreat at Rufisque has been estimated =
at
> >> between 0.45 and 2.46 m/yr (1959 to 1980).As recently as 1997, the
> >> Sangomar spit that borders the saloum river was been completely cutoff=
,
> >> totally
> >> inundating the village of Jiffere (personal visit to the site in July
> >> 1997).In The Gambia, studies ( mainly aerial photo interpretation ) ha=
ve
> >> indicated a general erosion rate of 1-2m/yr. In Localized severely
> >> affected areas such as the Banjul muslim cemetery area, Rufisque and
> >> Jeffere, in senegal and many other areas in the subregion such as the
> >> victoria beach Lagoes erosion rates are much higher. The Geology
> >> department of Chiek Anta Diop University in Dakar has carried many
> >> studies,like wise other parts of the subregion and overseas including
> >> the US but there is yet no conclusive answer to the problems of coasta=
l
> >> erosion.
> >>=20
> >> In The Gambia like many parts of the world, several hard and soft
> >> stabilization efforts were tried but so far the success story is hardl=
y
> >> told anywhere. Even in the US a lot of failures of beach protection
> >> efforts have been reported.
> >>=20
> >> In 1957, the Banjul muslim and christian cemetery area suffered from
> >> flooding during spring tide. Groynes of ruhn palm were constructed wit=
h
> >> concrete pannels as respose . This was latter abandonned and rhun palm
> >> piles connected by timber walling and ruhn palm sheet piles, jetted in=
to
> >> the sand secured
> >> to the walling by means of nailing was tried. Both efforts have worked=
for
> >> sometime and latter failed as we observe today.A combination of groyne=
s
> >> and
> >> boulder stone pitching retained in gabions have also been tried, with =
no
> >> success.
> >>=20
> >> Resently the muslim community heaped some boulder stones on the seawar=
d
> >> side of the muslim cemetery and this also could not work. This effort =
was
> >> followed by another gabion basket (bolders in coated wire mesh ) metho=
d of
> >> protection which is also failing.The most recent effort is UNDP sponsu=
red
> >> effort which has been mentioned in one of the e-mail messages.
> >>=20
> >> The above is just a synopsys of the problems and efforts. The biggest
> >> question is which stabilization method is most suitable and why all th=
ese=3D
> >> =3D20
> >> methods are failig. All methods
> >> including concrete wall have failed in many places and infact such
> >> methods have a very serious side effects of the sea attacking the two =
ends
> >> of the
> >> wall and thus aggravating erosion at these sides.There are several
> >> examples of
> >> this which I cannot give here, but the various sea wall trials in
> >> Rufisque, in senegal are typical and near home examples. The sea wall =
at
> >> Radio Syd is proved to only hold the sea temporally, The effect of end
> >> erosion can be seen there too.
> >>=20
> >> Therefore the issue of coastal erosion is global and the causes are no=
t
> >> very clear in many places including the Gambia and Senegal. The curren=
t
> >> trend of thought is better coastal zone planning, i.e the planning and
> >> management of human activities in the coastal environment. Relocation =
of
> >> human activities including settlements are some of the solutions in so=
me
> >> literature.This is a very costly venture but it may worth thinking and
> >> planning at an early stage. The village of Jeferre, in Senegal was for=
ced
> >> to relocate by nature within a very short period of time. The US
> >> Geological Survey
> >> report " Coasts in Crisis " by S.J. Williams, K Dodd, and K. K.Gohn, 1=
991
> >> suggested that the first step needed to manage the coastal crisis is" =
to
> >> understand our- coast better, to build a solid foundation of earth-sci=
ence
> >> data on coastal processes and evolution". =3D20
> >>=20
> >> Thus Sand mining, infracstructure development are all anthropogenic
> >> activities which have been blamed for causing or aggravating coastal
> >> erosion. This cannot be denied but, natural factors such as low
> >> topography,unconsolidated rocks, aggressive hydrodynamic system, and m=
ore
> >> importantly sea level rise should be serious looked into, particalarly=
in
> >> the case of west Africa region.
> >>=20
> >> Malanding, this is done in a big hurry but I think I need to share lit=
tle
> >> I know in the Senegambia region with all of you. I am curently writing=
a
> >> short paper on costal erosion in The Gambia.This cannot be available
> >> immediately, because it has to go through academic scrutiny.
> >>=20
> >> Anyway the National Environment Agency (NEA) can be of some help in
> >> providing more recent interventions and the current coastal zone
> >> management paradigm in the Gambia =3D20
> >>=20
> >> Thanks
> >>=20
> >> Fafa
> >> On Wed, 7 Jan 1998, Malanding S. Jaiteh wrote:
> >>=20
> >> >=3D20
> >> > > From GAMBIA-L-owner@u.washington.edu Wed Jan 7 03:48:57 1998
> >> > > Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 09:49:26 +0100
> >> > > From: =3D3D?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=3D3DF8rn_Nordam?=3D3D <asbjorn.norda=
m@dif.dk>
> >> > > To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l=
@u.wa=3D
> >> shington.edu>
> >> > > Subject: SV: Endangered Gambian Beaches!!
> >> > > MIME-Version: 1.0
> >> > > Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
> >> > > X-To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> >> > > X-Priority: 3
> >> > > X-Listprocessor-Version: 8.1 beta -- ListProcessor(tm) by CREN
> >> > >=3D20
> >> > > Jabou, I made the same experience when I visited Gambia in Novembe=
r.
> >> > > Some oceanographers must come to gambia and advice the government.=
As I
> >> > > see it they have started to prevent just outside Banjul where you =
have
> >> > > the cementary. But at the same time the coast, and the beach where=
I wa=3D
> >> s
> >> > > staying this time was taken. The beachbar at the Hotel Atlantic wa=
s nea=3D
> >> r
> >> > > to disappear one night. Banjul will one day (if not allready) be a=
n
> >> > > island. The Sea want to break through, and if the government want =
to
> >> > > preserve, they need experts. All the sand taken from the beaches g=
o to
> >> > > all the building-activities, because the tradition is building wit=
h
> >> > > concrete-blocks.(Which I will change with my house in Gambia) The =
more
> >> > > houses, the more sand they transport from your beaches. And becaus=
e of
> >> > > the big lorries going to Gunjur-Kartong, to bring sand from the be=
ach,
> >> > > the main road is totally spoiled. The government got a foreign loa=
n, (a=3D
> >> s
> >> > > I was told on the news in november) to build a new road from
> >> > > Serekunda/Bijilo to Gunjur along the coastline. What that will com=
e to
> >> > > mean of exploitation of natural ressources, or rich gambians to bu=
y the
> >> > > costal area for housing in the long run, or better conditions for =
the
> >> > > people living down there, better transport, better service etc., w=
ill b=3D
> >> e
> >> > > interesting to follow. How the government will balance the develop=
ment
> >> > > and the preservation of nature and natural ressources at the same=
time=3D
> >> ,
> >> > > is interesting for a foreigner as me, who can se the result in Den=
mark
> >> > > from just thinking of progressing the infra-structure, and now hav=
e to
> >> > > repair from the investments in the past. It all helps to give a be=
tter
> >> > > NGP !! First take the ressources and build the towns, the roads an=
d all
> >> > > that, and now "repair" the nature again. Just a comment Asbj=3DF8r=
n.
> >> > =3D20
> >> >=3D20
> >> > I thank Jabou and Asbjorn for bringing up the Gambia beach problem. =
Let m=3D
> >> e start by saying that I am no expert in this subject. I happen to be =
a con=3D
> >> cern somebody having the feeling that somthing is not right.=3D20
> >> >=3D20
> >> > Jabou some legend say that Banjul will be consumed by the sea. I am =
no b=3D
> >> eliever in legend but I think the threat to Banjul and the surrounding=
is n=3D
> >> o doubt real and I believe it is well understood by the government. Wh=
at is=3D
> >> not clear is whether the real cause of it is undertood. Theories say =
that =3D
> >> sand mining is the major cause followed by construction particularly o=
n the=3D
> >> south Bank of the estuary. However several attempts have been made to=
miti=3D
> >> gate the problem including banning sand mining between Banjul and Bij=
ilo p=3D
> >> erhaps even beyond. What is interesting is that the problem seems to b=
e inc=3D
> >> reasing. The only things that really seem to work (only for a short wh=
ile t=3D
> >> hough) is the artificial Barriers on the beach. I will call expert to =
corre=3D
> >> ct me on this. If that seems to be the case then we might want to look=
beyo=3D
> >> nd sand mining on the south Bank. I think that big picture approach ma=
y giv=3D
> >> e us better understanding. A complete study of ocean and river current=
s on =3D
> >> both sides of the !
> >> > !
> >> > !
> >> > !
> >> > !
> >> > river.=3D20
> >> >=3D20
> >> > I say that one reason. For quite sometime now (perhaps 20 yrs) there=
is a=3D
> >> growing sand bank near Barra around the ferry terminal and former GP=
MB de=3D
> >> pot. The problem was so serious that the Ferry terminal had to be regu=
larly=3D
> >> dredged. That problem could have come from the construction of those =
stuct=3D
> >> ures. If so then one may ask, where would all that sand be if the stru=
cture=3D
> >> s were never built? Perhap we could hydrologists and physicists in the=
Bant=3D
> >> aba who are familar with the area to put in their thoughts.=3D20
> >> >=3D20
> >> > Asbjorn, one can understand your feelings about the potential impact=
s of =3D
> >> the new road. Let me say that there is no land between Tanjeh and Banj=
ul th=3D
> >> at one can call "really public" except for a few patches. Also unless =
thing=3D
> >> s changed since 1994, much of the lands in the area along the proposed=
road=3D
> >> had been purchased by affluent Gambians aware of the plans since earl=
y 199=3D
> >> 0s. The road had been part of the tourist development plan and almost =
all t=3D
> >> he beach (except a few strips) had been desinated Tourist Develepment =
Area.=3D
> >> Talking of Natural Resources, it is sad to say,there is very little o=
f tha=3D
> >> t.
> >> >=3D20
> >> > Malanding jaiteh
> >> >=3D20
> >> >=3D20
> >>=20
> >
> >
> >
> =10 @=80
>=20
>=20


------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 15:21:06 -0000
From: "tgr@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Cc: "The Informer Media Group Company Ltd." <lamkins@commit.gm>
Subject: Re: GambiaNet's Progress Report & Response to Recent Inquiries/Comm
Message-ID: <B0000038018@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sent by "Torstein Grotnes" <tgr@commit.gm>
via Commit



Hello Momodou.

Thanks for your response.
I have been reading through this mail the last days to see what
could be the background for your level of reaction to my
initial posting.

First I would like to state that FRESH is of course a totally independent
publishing from The Informer Media Group Company Ltd. and that my
critisism is my personal view as a representative from Commit.

My apologies to FRESH for including their presentation in my personal mail.

After having a meeting with the Managing editor he would like to stress the
point
to the Gambia-l members that one of FRESH main concerns is to support the
cultural development of The Gambia and that they are dedicated to bringing
forward
new talents and news from the cultural scene.

---------------
Below is my reply to momodou's reply to my initial posting.

Disclaimer:
This is my personal view and not IMG' s view.

I see you now Momodou as a good friend since our meeting in The Gambia
and I was hoping that you were able to see that my "blunt" inputs on
different
topics is powered by a wish to really do something substancial about a
situation
that I am not happy or comfortable with.

You wrote among other:

> Dear Gambia-L,

.... But as we mentioned above, FRESH is not a paper about Politics and
> not about Economics; it is ultimately about Sports and
> Entertainment, things that are meant to make us feel good even if
> the reality of our lives are not that pretty to watch. Not that
> anything is wrong with selling us an escapist medium, only that we
> want to highlight the fact that a paper like that can only be an
> addition to but certainly cannot be a substitute for an independent,
> aggressive and politically and economically oriented paper that has
> made it its job to tell us both the good and the bad news about the
> political and economic health of our nation.To our mind, that is the
> kind of paper we in the diaspora especially need and should want when
> considering paying for an Online News Service.

I do agree with you that we really need Observer, The Point, Foroyaa etc.
to join
the papers on the net. I am dedicated to the issue also because of my
attachment to The Gambia,
and are willing to spend (have been spending) Commit working hours and
evening hours
to make this happening.
I do NOT agree with you that FRESH is a dismissable paper that is
insufficient for
subscription. It covers important areas of The Gambian cultural life, that
ultimately is
interliked with the topics of politics and economics.

> It is because of this fact that we at GambiaNet decided some one year
> ago that, by Gambian standards, the paper that comes closest to
> meeting these criteria was the country's Daily Observer. And since
> then, we have tirelessly worked on the project of bringing this
> particular paper to the Internet and are glad to say that the entire
> basic infrastructure is all set now. And if it has not been for the
> few technical difficulties that our Gambian partner, The Observer
> Group, has been facing, the Online Version of this paper would have
> been a reality a long time ago.

That is one of my points of critisism, that the time it has taken to come
closer
to a solution has been eccessively long, and that you have had to rely at
times on other
people based in The Gambia that is/was not directly linked to the Observer
group.
(Mr.Sawo,Commit etc.)

> A quick visit to our Website and a perusal of the impressive Observer
> Demos that our technical team has assembled there should make that
> demonstrably clear for even the hardened cynic. Once the Online
> version of this particular paper is up and running, and hopefully
> very soon, especially now that we have finished drafting the Contract
> between us and the Observer Group, we would explore the possibility
> of bringing the other prominent Gambian papers onbord, especially an
> aggressive one like Foroyaa, if possible.

I have not been to your site, The Gambia beeing without browsing
posebillities,
so I will not comment on that.

> So, we are pleading with all those who have shown interest in this
> project to continue to be patient with us as we sort out and try to
> overcome the outstanding bottlenecks on our way towards a working and
> reliable Observer online news services.

This is exactly to the point in my posting. What are the bottlenecks for
you now?
We haven't heard from you for a long time, and would like to hear your
views on
what can be done to overcome the problems or any other alternative solution
that
can be implemented.

> Maybe a complaint is in order here! This Observer Online project has
> taken a little bit far too long to complete.That is true no doubt,
> but as any Gambian living and working abroad knows too well, the
> number of hours and amount of energy that is normally left for us to
> use for ourselves in any given day after performing that routine but
> delicate balancing act between giving our hundred percent to our
> workplaces, our schools and our families is minuscule, at best. And
> to squeeze into those few remaining hours of the day and tiny amount
> of energy left of us a volunteer work such as we perform at both
> Gambia-L and GambiaNet can prove extremely taxing sometimes for
> anyone of us.

I sure belive you are all hardworking guys and girls but are you telling me
that in
your daily life you do not have time for relaxing, taking a beer, go out to
discos,
sit at your favourite cafe' with fellow Gambians, fool around with
girls/boys
(the unmarried of you, of course!), reading a book, watching hours of TV,
writing long letters to Gambia-L etc.??
If so, then I am sorry for you, because I would never do that to MY life.
To do something on a volunteer basis calls for some priority and
sacrifices,
and if you can't do it you should maybe find alternative solutions or
people who
have time to do it.

> But all the same, all of us still contribute, albeit at varying
> degrees. We do, partly because all of us need and want to be
> constantly informed of the latest news in and about our
> motherland, and where else could we do that better than in our lovely
> Gambia-L?! And also partly because all of us know that the kind of
> Gambia our children will inherit tomorrow will largely depend on the
> amount of hardwork and sacrifices we the Gambians of today are
> prepared to make for our homeland.

I have always smiled a little on the idea that something like 200-300
Gambians
can make any large impact of the future of The Gambia, especially from
abroad..
The contribution is of course there, but it should be so much more,
especially if
you think about the extent of brain drain that happens "down here".

> This brings to the other reason why we are writing this article.The
> Mail that we referred to in our opening paragraph that Mr.Torstein
> had sent to the Gambia-L to announce the Launching of the FRESH
> newspaper infact contained more than a mere annoucement of that
> fact. In a not so subtle manner, he among other things savaged our
> competence, our lack of preparedness to make the sacrifices necessary
> to finish this observer project, and our partial dependence on his
> company, Commit to help train the observer people. But nothing could
> be further from the truth, and the facts of the matter are as
> follows:-
> (a) The only request we have made of Commit to date is to help the
> Observer with hardware and software installations and to train a
> couple of Observer staff members in the use of the equipment.

Only? Do you now the number of hours we have put into this project
without receiving a single BUTUT??

> (b) We have not thought of asking Commit for technical solutions
> because there is no need to.

Itis entirely up to you of course to ask us for any cooperation, but to say
that there is no need for a technical solution here is I'm afraid far from
what we belive.

1 - Commit had to find the right supplier of a MAC to the Observer,
2 - Commit had to negotiate price and get hold of the supplier
people/Observer people
to be able to get a agreement between the supplier and the Observer,
3 - Commit had to install and configure the computer to make it work at
Observer,
4- Commit had to pursue Observer and their technical supervisor to get
them to set-up
the MAC at the Observer premises so that an e-mail account could be
set up,
4 - Commit has had correspondence with the Observer group and supplied them
with
the neccesary technical info for them to purchase the right software
and other general recommadations
5 - The Observer group has been relying on Commit (up till now) to install
the purchased
software and train the Observer people on the use of it (a proper
software version is yet to be delivered to us),
6 - To at all make the e-mail account at Observer work, we have had to go
there and re-train
the staff several times,

Commit has used time and resources; telephone/car/working hours, to come
to this point.
* Commit has not recieved ANY money on the Observer project *

> (c)
In our dealings with Commit, they have not (not even once) had to
> "push" for us (the "Observer group") to get anything done.

To send mails after mail to the Observer group about neccesary things to do
with/for the Observer
without getting any substancial feedback is what I call pushing...

> (d) Rather than use the little free time we have experimenting
> with implementing an HTML converter on Macs we do not have access to,
> we logically decided to buy a Quark to HTML converter priced at under
> $100, with our own funds of course.

Thank you for in this mail telling us for the first time that you have
purchased a commercial
version of the software needed at Observer. Why have you not notified us
about it and sent it to us
for implementing?

> (e) We pooled our funds to form GambiaNet which will allow the
> Observer Online service to be legally provided on a tax-free basis.

I do not know about the US regulations, but the Internet is a place where
it is quite difficult to tax anything.
Especially when it comes from a African country without any proper
copyright legislation.
This is just a comment. You know better than me if you had to set up a
GambiaNet for this and other services.

> (f) We have finished a contract which we have sent to the Observer.

Even if we have been pleading with Observer to use their e-mail daily,
they seem to ignore it as a communication tool.

> (g) Our volunteerism will ensure that any profits earned by the
> project will satisfy the stipulation in our bylaws that profits be
> applied towards Gambia-related development initiatives, especially in
> education.
> (h) We continue to work towards bringing the Observer
> online and that the Observer, despite our visits and telephone calls,
> has remained a reluctant partner.
> (i) If the Observer does not tell us something definite about the
> contract within next couple of weeks, we will start looking for
> another Gambian paper to bring online.

Good, finally some feedback. Let us look for an alternative, we are stil
willing to help,
without a butut earning..!

> (j) The URLs (http://www.xsite.net/~c3p0/gambianet/ , the no-frames
> version at http://www.isr.umd.edu/~isatou/gambianet and
> http://www.xsite.net/~c3p0/gambianet/admin/) point to barebones
> testbeds for the final site we have had in place since early last
> fall.
> (k) It should be noted that the site will provide us the
> operational ease and efficiency we all desire given our time
> constraints.

I am happy for you that the site is up and running..maybe you can give us
some
technical information on how you do it, what equipment you use so that we
are
better set to implement transmissions from any newspaper??!

> So, unless Torstein intended those irresponsible remarks about us as
> a huge Ramadan joke, we cannot resist the temptation of concluding
> that our friend has not done any meaningful homework on us, else how
> could we explain the masochism inherent in his attacking the
> intelligence and competence of the shakers of the very platform that
> makes his otherwise very boring Emailing services such an exciting
> proposition for his customers in the Gambia.

Irresponsible? Machosism? My good friend Camara, do I deserve these words?
Let's get down to work instead and by some joint sacrifices we can get
there....?
Actually, my friend, you have to re-write your last three-four sentences to
make them
understandable for a guy like me...The Observer Group is not even known as
a name or
idea by 99% of our customers (150 now.. and increasing) or any other
Internet interested
person in The Gambia. (The same would probably apply for Gambia-L as a
forum.)

> Of course, it has never been our style to either over-react or lose
> our good sense of humour; and for that reason, we won't say more than
> this on this subject, but we, of course, expect him to reciprocate us
> with the kind of courtesy and respect we accord him, his brother and
> the company that they run in our country.

I would reciprocate you and your group if I only knew what the word meant,
(laugh..)
I only hope my reply is sufficient for you.

> We know that even though profit is the main reason why they are in
> the Gambia, they are nonetheless contributing to the technical
> development of our country, and we like them for it.

Without a profit-angle there would not be any Commit in The Gambia
for the simple reason that it costs money to run an e-mail service.
And I would assume that applies to any ISP running a internet link in any
country.
Our reasons for coming to The Gambia is not a single one, and our views
and aims are changing over time.
What I can say is that we care about our customers and that we work really
hard
to create a good service for Gambians.

> And we definitely have no problems whatsoever if Mr.Torstein finds
> sending a Gambia paper to the Internet as easy as "a piece of cake"
> That is the way it should be, because that is his livelihood and he
> can afford to spend much, if not all, of his twenty-four hours on
> it, whereas ours is a mixture of hobby and volunteer work on which we
> can't afford to spend except a tiny percentage of our spare time.That
> is the fundamental difference between our two situations that our
> friend either chose not to remember or simply deliberately ignored
> when he sent his that message to the Gambia-L.

Maybe you are also ignoring the fact that I am a single person without
even a proper Internet Conection. Despite that it took me two weeks to
develop the FRESH edition in between our heavy e-mail support and
running around connecting people for free.(installation, training and two
test weeks are free of charge.)
We have loong days, most times until late evening.
(an examle: One of our customers actually phoned us at 11PM 31-December
for support on his Windows95 software.)

> So, we hope he would in the future show a higher degree of civility
> in his dealings with us. And we thank all of you for your patience in
> reading this report!

I am who I am and I still consider myself you good friend.
Until next time we meet,

It's
Tosh
the Gambia




------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 14:37:16 -0500
From: Ceesay Soffie <Ceesay_Soffie@prc.com>
To: "'GAMBIA-L@U.WASHINGTON.EDU'" <GAMBIA-L@U.WASHINGTON.EDU>
Subject: FW: FCC Internet TAX
Message-ID: <C69DB1B2BFFBCF11B5D300000000000152DD72@Cry1.prc.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain

Something that could mean more money out of our pockets unless we all
act -

Soffie

> In a message dated 98-01-15 04:42:50 EST, Wld wind 3 writes:
>
> <<
>
> Your local telephone company has filed a proposal with the FCC to
> impose
> per minute charges for your internet service. They contend that your
> usage has
> or will hinder the operation of the telephone network.
>
> It is my belief that internet usage will diminish if users were
> required
> to pay additional per minute charges. The FCC has created an email box
> for
> your comments, responses must be received by February 13, 1998.
> Send your comments to isp@fcc.gov and tell them what you think.
> Every phone company is in on this one, and they are trying to
> sneak it in
> just under the wire for litigation. Let everyone you know hear this
> one. Get
> the e-mail address to everyone you can think of.
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 15:07:45 -0500
From: M W Payne <awo@mindspring.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: FW: FCC Internet TAX
Message-ID: <34BFBE11.96A4552F@mindspring.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sis Soffie & Gambia-Lers,

The preceeding news was a hoax. Of course, if true it would only affect the
US, but it is a long dead issue. Take a look at:

http://www.msnbc.com/news/137025.asp

MWP

Ceesay Soffie wrote:

> Something that could mean more money out of our pockets unless we all
> act -
>
> Soffie
>
> > In a message dated 98-01-15 04:42:50 EST, Wld wind 3 writes:
> >
> > <<
> >
> > Your local telephone company has filed a proposal with the FCC to
> > impose
> > per minute charges for your internet service. They contend that your
> > usage has
> > or will hinder the operation of the telephone network.
> >
> > It is my belief that internet usage will diminish if users were
> > required
> > to pay additional per minute charges. The FCC has created an email box
> > for
> > your comments, responses must be received by February 13, 1998.
> > Send your comments to isp@fcc.gov and tell them what you think.
> > Every phone company is in on this one, and they are trying to
> > sneak it in
> > just under the wire for litigation. Let everyone you know hear this
> > one. Get
> > the e-mail address to everyone you can think of.


------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 15:32:18 -0500
From: Ceesay Soffie <Ceesay_Soffie@prc.com>
To: "GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List"
<gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: FW: FCC Internet TAX
Message-ID: <C69DB1B2BFFBCF11B5D300000000000152DD74@Cry1.prc.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain

Thank you Mr. Payne and to everyone, I apologise for the mis-info.
MSNBC's report states that it was a consideration but has long been a
dead issue.

Soffie

> The preceeding news was a hoax. Of course, if true it would only
> affect the
> US, but it is a long dead issue. Take a look at:
>
> http://www.msnbc.com/news/137025.asp
>
> MWP

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 16:29:28 -0500
From: Annie Bittaya <ab063147@gwmail.kysu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: new member -Reply
Message-ID: <s4bf8af3.079@gwmail.kysu.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain
Content-Disposition: inline

Latjor ,
Please add Naffie Jeng in the list. Her address is
NJ132209@gwmail.kysu.edu.

Thanks
Annie.

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 14:56:24 -0800 (PST)
From: Sarian Loum <Sarian.Loum@Corp.Sun.COM>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: New Members
Message-ID: <libSDtMail.9801161456.15399.sarian@groucho>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-MD5: SFgH1wvDXw09T2d/FXxYHw==

All,

Saikou Marong and Abdoulie Sidibeh have been added to the list. Welcome aboard guys and
please send in your intros to gambia-l@u.washington.

regards,

sarian


------------------------------

Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 15:02:50 -0800 (PST)
From: Sarian Loum <Sarian.Loum@Corp.Sun.COM>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: New Members
Message-ID: <libSDtMail.9801161502.17753.sarian@groucho>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-MD5: 9EMS8EG+WyH6KTp+1M3abA==

Naffie Jeng has also been added. Welcome aboard and please send in your intro.

sarian

> Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 14:56:24 -0800 (PST)
> From: Sarian Loum <Sarian.Loum@Corp>
> To: "GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> Subject: New Members
> MIME-Version: 1.0
> Content-MD5: SFgH1wvDXw09T2d/FXxYHw==
> X-Listprocessor-Version: 8.1 beta -- ListProcessor(tm) by CREN
>
> All,
>
> Saikou Marong and Abdoulie Sidibeh have been added to the list. Welcome aboard guys and
> please send in your intros to gambia-l@u.washington.
>
> regards,
>
> sarian
>


------------------------------

Date: Sat, 17 Jan 1998 00:40:11 -0000
From: "archibald.graham@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: "GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: France '98
Message-ID: <B0000038282@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sent by "Archibald H. R. Graham" <archibald.graham@commit.gm>
via Commit


What are the chances of one of the qualified African teams to lift the Word
Cup trophy?

The ratings out here in the papers here seem to suggest Nigeria as a
hopeful.

What are the ratings elsewhere?

I would like to know if possible.

Regards to all.
Archi


------------------------------

Date: Sat, 17 Jan 1998 01:38:15 -0000
From: "archibald.graham@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: "GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Car License Plates
Message-ID: <B0000038287@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sent by "Archibald H. R. Graham" <archibald.graham@commit.gm>
via Commit


You may also be interested to know that the car numbering system is about
being changed. There was an official press release in the Gambia Daily
newspaper the other day and according to it the issuing of the number
plates would now be centralized and the police department would be
responsible for issuing number plates. The number prefix would actually be
based on the various administrative divisions:

Banjul BJL

KSMD KMC

North Bank Division NBD

Western Division WD

Lower River Division LRD

Central River Division URD


It seems to me though there was a flaw in the press release which
apparently could be a typographical error on the last and an omission of
Upper River Division from the list. I would found out more on this and let
you know of it latter.

The plate colours would virtually remain the same though.

Regards
Archi


------------------------------

Date: Sat, 17 Jan 1998 00:54:04 -0800
From: Paul <bgibba@interlog.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: subscribe!
Message-ID: <3.0.2.32.19980117005404.0068b2bc@mail.interlog.com>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Hi! Bro Omar,
I'm not sure if you are someone that I know but i would like to be in
touch with you.
Bakary Paul Gibba (Toronto-Canada).

At 04:33 AM 1/16/98 PST, you wrote:
>Kindly put my friend, Saikou Marong on the list. His mailing address is:
>
> smarong@hotmail.com
>
>peace,
>
>Omar Jibba (O.J)
>
>______________________________________________________
>Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com
>
>

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 17 Jan 1998 11:20:22 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: GambiaNet's Progress Report & Response to Recent Inquiries/
Message-ID: <19980117102114.AAA66648@nijii>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT

Hi Totstein,
Your response is well noted,but as we mentioned in our report , we
don't want to say more than what we have already said on this
subject, so maybe we should move forward and look to the future.

Please, keep up the good work down there!

On behalf of GambiaNet Inc.
Momodou Camara

> I am who I am and I still consider myself your good friend.
> Until next time we meet,
>

You are still a good friend and I appreciated your efforts both
during the preparation of my visit to Gambia last November with the
Danish students and the stay there. We hope to see you again
later this year (insallah).

Your e-mail services had been very useful and "not boring".:-)))
*** http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara
"To make friends is easy, just use pure ingredients"***

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 17 Jan 1998 19:23:42 +0300
From: "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: "GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Is It Our Nature: A Discussion With Mr.Sidibeh!!
Message-ID: <01bd2364$5d6a6f00$242185c2@q-tel.qatar.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Mr.Sidibeh,
I was a little bit busy with something and could not follow your episodes
on: IS IT OUR NATURE? But I am back and I have just finished reading
them.Here is what I have got out of them:-

In Part One,You

1) Agreed with Prof Nyiang and President Museveni of Uganda,as opposed to
what Tamsir was saying,that without the active participation of the black
people themselves and mostly their leaders in buying and selling of slaves
,black slavery could not have reached the horrifying proportions that it
assumed.But you did not explain to us whether there could be a difference
between a black person selling another black person in a black land/ and a
white person buying a black person and taking him/her to a white land.I
would assume that it is now much more difficult to identify the negative
impact of slavery on the blacks whose ancestors were sold and bought within
the black countries than for the ones exported to Europe,Americas and the
Middle east.

2) You agreed with President Jammeh that Gambian intellectuals in the
diaspora could have contributed culturally and technically much more
effectively for their homeland if they were actually inside the Gambia.But
you at the same time counte-argued that they are still contributing
significantly financially by subsidising their families back home as well as
buying properties from there.So,maybe we should not just pack our bags and
go home as some suggested sometime ago.Our intellectuals infantile
dependence on the state for jobs and their lack of creativity into venturing
into alternative sources of earning a living have made them obedient and
unprotesting servants of the state,a fact that has rendered them exceedingly
unproductive in terms of teaching Gambians about how the world works and
about how the state sometimes lies to them,a profound disservice to the
Gambian people!So,maybe the Private sector that is now being created and
encouraged to flourish would eventually constitute an emancipatory force for
our 'poor' and helpless learned people!

3) You posited that our past history is responsible for our ethnic divisions
and that our ethnic loyalties are stronger than our nationalism.You also
raised the very significant issue of the reverence that our culture gives to
AGE: that being old means being more knowledgeable and wise.But you did not
tell us why we revere age,and how sometimes our elders abuse that
reverence.You also did not tell us how each age group is considered as a
specific level of social education which does not normally allow into it
members of a lower age group, for fear that they have not yet got the level
of maturity required to handle the issues or skills specific to that age
group.

4) You also made an unflattering remark about my city,the Premier City in
Gambia,Sukuru kunda.But I will not comment on that now.Maybe I will wait
until Jabbou comes.She seems to be silent these days!

And in a moment,I will try to say something about your Part 2 and 3, but in
the meantime,Keep Up The Good Work Down There!


Regards Bassss!





------------------------------

Date: Sat, 17 Jan 1998 13:41:37 EST
From: Gunjur <Gunjur@aol.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: GambiaNet's Progress Report & Response to Recent Inquiries/Comm
Message-ID: <ee29eeec.34c0fb63@aol.com>
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit

Momodou,
Thanks for the up-date on the Observer On-line project and for the response to
Torstein's subtle but piercing remarks. We most certainly can relate to the
daily effort to balance work, family etc . and yet you and others on this list
care enough to make the time to volunteer in projects that make significant
contributions to the Gambian community around the World and at home.THANKS
BRO. FOR ALL YOUR EFFORTS, AND THANKS TO ALL THE SILENT CONTRIBUTORS TO OUR
EFFORTS AT BUILDING A BETTER GAMBIA. I THINK I CAN SAFELY SPEAK ON BEHALF OF
ALL OF US WHEN I SAY THAT ' WE APPRECIATE WHO YOU ARE AND WHAT YOU DO.

Sincerely
Jabou Joh

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 17 Jan 1998 20:03:26 -0000
From: "pmj@commit.gm" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: Car License Plates
Message-ID: <B0000038530@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Sent by "Pa Musa Jallow" <pmj@commit.gm>
via Commit


Folks,
Further to the changes, the car plate/TK Motor -gate is the latest hot news
in town when National Reconciliation Party Leader and Assembly man Hamat
Bah raised it in the National Assembly that how come the deal to change the
number plates ..approx. 15000 cars @ D250 each contract was awarded to T K
Motors without an Open Tender, competitive Bidding etc..in contravention of
the Constitution and the Financial Instruments that require all contract
above D100,000 to go the The MAJOR TENDER BOARD and over D2 million to go
the CABINET prior to AWARD. Hamat Bah alleged that this was a CORRUPT DEAL
and poor hardworking folks are being ruined in favour of a FOREIGN tycoon
and asked for the RESIGNATION of the Interior Secretary of State, Rtd.
Major Bojang; who called a Press Conference and insisted that a high level
TECHNICAL committe went through TWO BIDs by TK MOtors and ALFRON ltd. The
rest of the GOvt. is remarkably quiet and there are rumours thatnot even
the Head of State was aware. Private folks that make these plate for as low
as d50 each and average d100 protested and make a delegation to present
their case via the newspapers.
At this point, these folks have been invited to a meeting at the Dept. of
State for the Interior..Conventional wisdom is the AWard may be reversed
and this should have no bearing to the change in lettering.

Disclaimer: this is just an attempt to summarise reports on the news and
papers and no opinion or verdict may be inferred.

----------
> From: archibald.graham@commit.gm <gambia-l@commit.gm>
> To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
<gambia-l@u.washington.edu>



------------------------------

Date: Sun, 18 Jan 1998 01:46:43 +0300
From: "Bassirou Dodou Drammeh" <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: Car License Plates
Message-ID: <01bd2399$c8994be0$d12385c2@q-tel.qatar.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Great Job,Mr.Jallow! And keep up the good work down there!

Regards Bassss!
-----Original Message-----
From: pmj@commit.gm <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
<gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Date: Sunday, January 18, 1998 7:10 AM
Subject: Re: Car License Plates


>Sent by "Pa Musa Jallow" <pmj@commit.gm>
> via Commit
>
>
>Folks,
>Further to the changes, the car plate/TK Motor -gate is the latest hot news
>in town when National Reconciliation Party Leader and Assembly man Hamat
>Bah raised it in the National Assembly that how come the deal to change the
>number plates ..approx. 15000 cars @ D250 each contract was awarded to T K
>Motors without an Open Tender, competitive Bidding etc..in contravention of
>the Constitution and the Financial Instruments that require all contract
>above D100,000 to go the The MAJOR TENDER BOARD and over D2 million to go
>the CABINET prior to AWARD. Hamat Bah alleged that this was a CORRUPT DEAL
>and poor hardworking folks are being ruined in favour of a FOREIGN tycoon
>and asked for the RESIGNATION of the Interior Secretary of State, Rtd.
>Major Bojang; who called a Press Conference and insisted that a high level
>TECHNICAL committe went through TWO BIDs by TK MOtors and ALFRON ltd. The
>rest of the GOvt. is remarkably quiet and there are rumours thatnot even
>the Head of State was aware. Private folks that make these plate for as low
>as d50 each and average d100 protested and make a delegation to present
>their case via the newspapers.
>At this point, these folks have been invited to a meeting at the Dept. of
>State for the Interior..Conventional wisdom is the AWard may be reversed
>and this should have no bearing to the change in lettering.
>
>Disclaimer: this is just an attempt to summarise reports on the news and
>papers and no opinion or verdict may be inferred.
>
>----------
>> From: archibald.graham@commit.gm <gambia-l@commit.gm>
>> To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
><gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
>
>
>


------------------------------

End of GAMBIA-L Digest 103
**************************

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