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Momodou



Denmark
10347 Posts

Posted - 19 Jun 2021 :  18:15:43  Show Profile Send Momodou a Private Message  Reply with Quote
GAMBIA-L Digest 79

Topics covered in this issue include:

1) RE: Forwarded, Re: Gambian dies in Danish jail (fwd)
by BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
2) Subscription
by binta@iuj.ac.jp
3) Fwd: Africa: Commonwealth Statement
by momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
4) Fwd: LITERATURE-AFRICA: Revolutionary Us
by momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
5) Fwd: AFRICA-AMERICAS: The Lost Ones are back
by momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
6) on leave (fwd)
by "A. Loum" <tloum@u.washington.edu>
7) Message
by "A.Dibba" <adibba@online.no>
8) Re: Message
by Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
9) Re: Message
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
10) Re: Message
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
11) Re: TRIP TO OAU SUMMIT(CONFIRMATION NEEDED)
by Andrea Klumpp <klumpp@kar.dec.com>
12) The dath of a gambian in a danish prison
by =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
13) Re: death of Dembo Marong
by "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
14) SV: Fwd: Re: Fwd: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
by "Momodou S Sidibeh" <momodou.sidibeh@stockholm.mail.telia.com>
15) Re: death of Dembo Marong
by EStew68064@aol.com
16) Re: The dath of a gambian in a danish prison
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
17) Bissau Swapping Pesos for CFA francs
by ASJanneh@aol.com
18) Bissau story, again
by ASJanneh@aol.com
19) Re: SV: Fwd: Re: Fwd: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
by binta@iuj.ac.jp
20) AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
by "BEYAI" <P.L.Beyai@newcastle.ac.uk>
21) Re: New member
by O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
22) Fwd: DISARMAMENT: US Gun Lobby Takes Aim at UN Arms Curbs
by momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
23) RE: The dath of a gambian in a danish prison
by BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
24) A Gambian National Language
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
25) False Report
by Bahary <bdukuray@login.eunet.no>
26) Re: Gambian dies in Danish jail (fwd)
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
27) Re: A Gambian National Language
by Susan Renee Hayes <srhayes@indiana.edu>
28) Basic education for everyone and electrification of the whole Gambia
by "A.Dibba" <adibba@online.no>
29) Re: Fwd: UNSUBSCRIBE FROM THE MAILING LIST
by OMAR SOWE <sowe@coventry.ac.uk>
30) Re: SV: Fwd: Re: Fwd: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
by "M. Njie" <mn015@students.stir.ac.uk>
31) Re: A Gambian National Language
by "M. Njie" <mn015@students.stir.ac.uk>
32) RE: Gambian dies in Danish jail (fwd)
by BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
33) Re: Basic education for everyone and electrification of the whole Gambia
by "The Gambia-L shadow list" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
34) Life Insurance
by "Dr. S. G. Kamara" <73244.2701@CompuServe.COM>
35) RE: A Gambian National Language
by BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
36) enquire (fwd)
by umjawara@cc.UManitoba.CA
37) RE: A Gambian National Language
by Susan Renee Hayes <srhayes@indiana.edu>
38) RE: A Gambian National Language
by "Jainaba Diallo" <jai_diallo@hotmail.com>
39) Re: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
by Ancha Bala-Gaye u <bala7500@mach1.wlu.ca>
40) Re: SV: Fwd: Re: Fwd: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
by Ancha Bala-Gaye u <bala7500@mach1.wlu.ca>
41) Gambians are capble !!!
by "A.Dibba" <adibba@online.no>
42) RE: Gambians are capble !!!
by Badara Joof <Joof@winhlp.no>
43) RE:BASIC EDUCATION TO EVERYONE....
by Olafiaklinikken Olafia <olafia@online.no>
44) A national language
by =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
45) [Fwd: ECONOMIST SEES AFRICANS STEERING AWAY FROM IDEOLOGY TOWARD SUCCESS]
by Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
46) [Fwd: WILSON BRING YEARS OF AFRICAN EXPERIENCE TO WHITE HOUSE POSITION]
by Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
47) RE: BASIC EDUCATION TO EVERYONE....
by "A.Dibba" <adibba@online.no>
48) Nation building - comments on fair trade
by =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
49) RE: BASIC EDUCATION TO EVERYONE...
by Olafiaklinikken Olafia <olafia@online.no>
50) Re: A Gambian National Language
by O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
51) RE: A Gambian National Language
by BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
52) Re: A Gambian National Language
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
53) fwd: Econews: Africa-Currency
by Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
54) Job in Africa (fwd)
by "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
55) Re: A Gambian National Language
by "M. Njie" <mn015@students.stir.ac.uk>
56) Re: A Gambian National Language
by O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
57) the hidden fortunes of african dictators(fwd)
by "N'Deye Marie N'Jie" <njie.1@osu.edu>
58) Re: A Gambian National Language
by O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
59) fwd: Baby's diet affects adult survival chances --study
by Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
60) Re: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
by "M. Njie" <mn015@students.stir.ac.uk>
61) Re: A Gambian National Language
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
62) Fwd: XIN: ADB Initiative to Benefit Rural, Urban Poor
by momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
63) Fwd: XIN: Liberia's Taylor Visits Nigeria
by momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
64) Re: A Gambian National Language
by Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
65) (Fwd) : XIN: Liberia's Taylor Visits Nigeria
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
66) (Fwd) :ADB Initiative to Benefit Rural, Urban Poor
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
67) GambiaNet Advisory Board
by Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
68) =?iso-8859-1?Q?Baby=B4s_diet_affects_adult_survival?=
by =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
69) =?iso-8859-1?Q?RE=3A_Baby=B4s_diet_affects_adult_survival?=
by BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
70) Re: A Gambian National Language
by O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
71) New members
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
72) MY INTRODUCTION
by conteh@usa.net
73) RE: MY INTRODUCTION
by BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
74) Something different... (fwd)
by "N'Deye Marie N'Jie" <njie.1@osu.edu>
75) Fwd:Ethiopia to Join African Peacekeeping Forces
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
76) FWD: ECOWAS Talks with S. Leone Junta May Deadlock
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
77) Vacation
by "A. Loum" <tloum@u.washington.edu>
78) re: Development of subsaharan africa
by "The Gambia-L shadow list" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
79) Re: Vacation
by MJagana@aol.com
80) RE: Development of subsaharan africa
by BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
81) Test: don't look!
by "Moe S. Jallow" <mjallow@sct.edu>
82) (Fwd): UNITED NATIONS: UNDP Unveils Bid to
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
83) (Fwd): IPS DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN / AFRICA:
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
84) (Fwd): HEALTH: U.N. to Ban Smoking in its
by momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
85) Fwd: Summer Jam
by MJawara@aol.com
86) Re: Development of subsaharan Africa
by "The Gambia-L shadow list" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
87) Re: Development of subsaharan Africa
by binta@iuj.ac.jp

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Sun, 27 Jul 1997 19:34:49 +-300
From: BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: Forwarded, Re: Gambian dies in Danish jail (fwd)
Message-ID: <01BC9AC4.29854A80@dddp.qatar.net.qa>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="---- =_NextPart_000_01BC9AC4.298E7240"


------ =_NextPart_000_01BC9AC4.298E7240
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Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Mr.Daddy Sang!
I don't think this has anything to do with what Islam says or does not =
say,because every single Arab country that I know of performs an autopsy =
examination for the bodies of all the deceased that the state has =
reasons to believe that their lives were lost as a result of foul =
play.So,maybe the people who communicated with Junkung's family back =
home did not work hard enough in making it ruthlessly clear to them that =
the circumstantial evidence that Jungkung was killed, not by natural =
causes, but by Danish Prisons Guards was overwhelming,and that rushing =
him to the grave would have the dual purpose of burying him and the =
evidence without which his 'murderers' would never be brought to pay for =
their heinous crime.It is indeed a double tragedy that the loss of =
Jungkung's life cannot now serve as a deterence
for any other Danish Prison Guard who might want to try such an =
unspeakable act again in the future!

Regards Bassss!

----------
From: A. Loum[SMTP:tloum@u.washington.edu]
Sent: 22/=D1=C8=ED=DA =C7=E1=C7=E6=E1/1418 12:19 =D5
To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
Subject: Forwarded, Re: Gambian dies in Danish jail (fwd)



---------- Forwarded message ----------
------------------------------------------------------------------

First, let me express sorrow and offer my condolences to the friends and
family of the deceased. Perhaps we need to remind our consul in denmark =
what
his obligations are especially to Gambian nationals whose existence in =
that
country is one of the main reasons he represnts Gambia. It is very
disheartening for a consul general to act like that, understandably, it =
was a
holiday week but your fellow national just died under mysterious
circumstances; it is encombent upon him to find out what really =
happened.
Now, I understand that for those of you who are muslims when somebody
dies,he/she must be burried whithin a certain period of time, Is there
anywhere in the koran where one can use to implore our elders back home =
about
the importance of a post-mortem operation. If Jonbong encountered foul =
play.
it should be exposed. This can form a precedence that others can use to
enquire into things of this nature. I don't know the law in denmark but
somebody owes us an explaination and those of you in Denmark should put
pressure on our consul to get some answers and if there's anyone out =
there
who is an expert in the koran please intercede with an advice to what I
alluded to. It's a pitty we will never find out the cause of death but =
for
the future we need to take steps to protect our nationals from =
unnessisary +
untimely death like this.

Peace =20

Daddy Sang


------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 02:57:29 +0900 (JST)
From: binta@iuj.ac.jp
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Subscription
Message-ID: <199707271754.CAA02098@mlsv.iuj.ac.jp>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; CHARSET=US-ASCII

List Managers,

Please subscribe Baboucarr Manneh at this new address:

bmanneh@hotmail.com

Thanks for your service and 'keep up the good work down there'!

Lamin.

------------------------------

Date: 27 Jul 1997 21:17:22 GMT
From: momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Fwd: Africa: Commonwealth Statement
Message-ID: <2090708895.283270904@inform-bbs.dk>

Africa: Commonwealth Statement
Date distributed (ymd): 970727
Document reposted by APIC

This posting contains the Concluding Statement from the July
10-11, 1997 meeting of the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group
(CMAG). CMAG was established by Commonwealth leaders when they
last met in New Zealand in November 1995 to deal with serious or
persistent violations of the Harare Declaration, the statement of
Commonwealth principles drawn up in 1991. These include a
commitment to democracy, good governance, human rights and the
rule of law.

CMAG comprises Ministers from Britain, Canada, Ghana, Jamaica,
Malaysia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe. It is chaired
by the Hon. Dr Stan Mudenge, Foreign Minister of Zimbabwe.

For more information, contact:

Information and Public Affairs Division
Commonwealth Secretariat
Marlborough House, Pall Mall
London SW1Y 5HX, Britain
Tel: +171 839 3411; Fax: +171 839 9081
Web: www.thecommonwealth.org

The Amnesty International memorandum on Nigeria submitted to the
CMAG meeting is available on the World Wide Web at:
http://www.oil.ca/amnesty/ailib/aipub/1997/AFR/14400897.htm

*********************************************************

Commonwealth News Release

11 July 1997

SEVENTH MEETING OF THE COMMONWEALTH MINISTERIAL ACTION
GROUP ON THE HARARE DECLARATION (CMAG)

Marlborough House, 10-11 July 1997

CONCLUDING STATEMENT

1. The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group on the Harare
Declaration (CMAG) held its seventh meeting at Marlborough House
in London on 10-11 July 1997 to review developments in the
Gambia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone and to consider preparations for
its Report to the October 1997 Commonwealth Heads of Government
Meeting (CHOGM).

The Gambia

2. The Group welcomed the report of the Commonwealth Secretariat
Assessment Mission which visited The Gambia on 24-27 March 1997
and requested the Secretary-General to implement its
recommendations for technical assistance in consolidating the
democratic transition.

3. At the same time, it reiterated its previous concern about
the lack of a fully inclusive political system in the Gambia. In
that context, CMAG urged the Government of The Gambia to remove
without further delay the ban on certain political parties and
individuals contained in Decree No. 89 and, in the political
environment so created, demonstrate its stated commitment to
human rights and the rule of law. Furthermore, CMAG called on
the Government of The Gambia to investigate allegations of
harassment of the Opposition.

Nigeria

4. Recalling the statement made by its Chairman in Abuja in
November 1996 that "CMAG will, in pursuance of its mandate,
remain engaged with Nigeria and seek to have access to the widest
possible cross-section of views from Nigeria", the Group received
oral presentations from a number of non-governmental
organisations (NGOs) and representatives of Nigerian civil
society. These included four Nigerian NGOs, viz. the National
Democratic Coalition of Nigeria, the Movement for the Survival of
the Ogoni People, the Democratic Alliance of Women in Nigeria,
and the Civil Liberties Organisation. CMAG also heard
representations from three pan-Commonwealth organisations -
namely, the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, the
Commonwealth Trade Union Council and the Commonwealth Lawyers'
Association - as well as from three international groups, viz
Amnesty International, Article 19 (which also represented Human
Rights Watch/Africa) and the International Crisis Group.

5. The representations made to CMAG expressed strong concerns
over what was seen as a deteriorating situation in respect of
human rights and the rule of law in Nigeria. Equally strong
concerns were raised about the Nigerian Government's transition
programme, which is perceived as being pursued without unfettered
and free participation, as well as its likely outcome. The
representation also raised the question of the growing numbers of
Nigerian exiles in neighbouring and other countries and their
need for assistance. CMAG was urged by all to recommend the
CHOGM more effective measures to be taken by the Commonwealth and
the wider international community to persuade Nigeria to live up
to its commitments under the Harare Commonwealth Declaration.

6. The information which CMAG gathered from these exchanges with
the NGOs was considered to be extremely useful and will, along
with the information already gathered from the Nigerian
Government and other sources, inform the Group's deliberations
and eventual recommendations to Commonwealth Heads of Government.

Sierra Leone

7. CMAG, recalling statements by its Chairman and the
Commonwealth Secretary-General and by others, including the
Summit of the Organisation of African Unity, condemned the
military "coup d'etat" of 25 May 1997 in Sierra Leone which
resulted in the overthrow of the democratically elected
government. The Group called for the immediate and unconditional
reinstatement of the democratically elected government of Sierra
Leone under President Tejan Kabbah. It urged the international
community to continue to deny recognition to the present illegal
regime in Freetown and decided, in accordance with the Milbrook
Action Programme, that pending the restoration of the legitimate
government, the participation of Sierra Leone in the councils of
the Commonwealth would be suspended.

8. The Group welcomed the efforts to restore the legitimate
Government of Sierra Leone currently being undertaken by the
Economic Community of West African States. At the same time, the
Group took note that these efforts were being taken in accordance
with the decision taken by the OAU and that they were being
carried out in co-ordination with the United Nations. CMAG called
on the international community fully to support the objectives of
these efforts.

Next meeting

9. CMAG decided to hold its next meeting in London on 11-12
September 1997 to formulate its recommendations to CHOGM.

************************************************************
This material is being reposted for wider distribution by the
Africa Policy Information Center (APIC), the educational
affiliate of the Washington Office on Africa. APIC's primary
objective is to widen the policy debate in the United States
around African issues and the U.S. role in Africa, by
concentrating on providing accessible policy-relevant
information and analysis usable by a wide range of groups and
individuals.

Auto-response addresses for more information (send any e-mail
message): africapolicy-info@igc.apc.org (about the Africa
Policy Electronic Distribution List); apic-info@igc.apc.org
(about APIC); woa-info@igc.apc.org (about WOA). Documents
previously distributed, as well as the auto-response
information files, are also available on the Web at:
http://www.igc.apc.org/apic/index.shtml

To be added to or dropped from the distribution list write to
apic@igc.apc.org. For more information about material cited
from another source please contact directly the source
mentioned in the posting rather than APIC.

For additional information: Africa Policy Information Center,
110 Maryland Ave. NE, #509, Washington, DC 20002. Phone:
202-546-7961. Fax: 202-546-1545. E-mail: apic@igc.apc.org.
************************************************************


------------------------------

Date: 27 Jul 1997 21:20:59 GMT
From: momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Fwd: LITERATURE-AFRICA: Revolutionary Us
Message-ID: <1494876126.283271366@inform-bbs.dk>

Copyright 1997 InterPress Service, all rights reserved.
Worldwide distribution via the APC networks.

*** 22-Jul-97 ***

Title: LITERATURE-AFRICA: Revolutionary Uses Ink for Bullets

By Gumisai Mutume

JOHANNESBURG, Jul 26 (IPS) - Soft-spoken and unassuming, Ngugi wa
Thiong'o does not behave like the average superstar, but he is
regarded by the younger generation as one Africa's most important
contemporary writers.

Dressed in a simple African robe, wa Thiong'o is willing to
give attention to all who approach him - whether for an autograph
or to discuss the explosive situation in his home country, Kenya.
He regards himself as just as ordinary as the people deep in rural
Kenya for whom he writes.

Yet, he is a revolutionary, championing a break with the
languages of the colonisers and Africa's rediscovering its own
identity in its culture and languages. He has shunned the use of
English as a vehicle for his writings and instead uses Gikuyu, one
of Kenya's many languages, and in the more common Kiswahili.

''I do not regard myself as a revolutionary,'' wa Thiong'o told
IPS. ''The things I say are so simple, I consider them to be
common sense. For example we must have our roots in our own
African languages. All other communities do the same.''

''But because of our colonial situation, what is normal has
become abnormal. When you insist on normality people see you as
revolutionary.''

No matter how he sees himself, the views expressed by Ngugi wa
Thiong'o are seen as such a threat in kenya that he has been
forced into exile from his home country since 1982.

Some of his works are not freely available back home and the
government of President Daniel Arap Moi went as far as sending its
foreign minister to England in 1984 to ask the British government
to stop the staging of Ngugi's play 'The Trial of Dedan Kimathi'
at the Africa Centre in London.

'The River Between', 'A Grain of wheat', 'Matigari',
'Decolonising the Mind' and 'Moving the Centre' are some of his
works that look at the realities confronting Africa during the
colonial era, in the post-colonial state.

To wa Thiong'o, one of the greatest hindrances to development
is the failure of African people to take pride in their own
languages and use them as vehicles for change. Across the
continent, English, French and Portuguese are the languages of
formal education and mental development, while indigenous tongues
are associated with backwardness.

''We see the rise of two nations within one territory -- a
small minority conducting affairs of the nation in European
languages and the majority speaking their own African languages.''
wa Thiong'o told a conference of English teachers at the
University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg this month.

''This has vast implications for the development of the post-
colonial nations in Africa. It means literally the split between
the mind and the body of Africa, producing what, in my book,
'Decolonising the Mind', I called nations of bodiless heads and
headless bodies,''

He argues that this has resulted in the 'thinking' part of the
population and the pool of skills and know-how in economics,
agriculture, science and engineering, for example, being divorced
from the agents of social change -- the working majority.

While Africa sings the song of North-South technology transfer,
''the African intellectual elites, with their knowledge, refuse to
transfer even the little they have already acquired into the
languages of the majority below.

''... knowledge researched by the sons and daughters of Africa,
and actually paid for by the entire working majority who need it
most, is stored in European language granaries. There can be no
real economic growth and development where a whole people are
denied access to the latest developments in science, technology,
health, medicine, business, finance and other skills...''

The implications are that the peasant and worker in Africa are
denied participation in governance and discussions about their own
economic, political and cultural survival since they have no
access to information and are therefore written off even from
international treaties.

''Africa exists in international treaties in European
languages. At the UN Organisation and in nearly all its organs,
there is not a single African language,'' he noted in 'Penpoints,
Gunpoints and Dreams', a paper he first presented in Oxford last
year and which is to be published in October.

Ngugi and his wife Njeeri live in New Jersey, in the United
States, where he is a professor of Comparative Literature and
Performance Studies at New York University.

A lot of his time is spent on a journal of literature and
culture called 'Mutiiri' and published in Gikuyu. Established in
1994, it is the first journal of its kind to be supported and
based at a major university in the United States.

'Mutiiri' continues Ngugi's work of promoting the development
of African languages as the basis of modern thought in Africa.

On the situation in his country, where pro-democracy rallies in
early July were brutally dispersed by the police, Ngugi says there
is growing hope now that the culture of silence and fear has been
broken and there are attempts to create a level playing field.

''It is no good going into the elections when Moi is both the
player and referee and also the goalkeeper on both camps,'' he
said. What is going on is very important. A social movement has
begun.'' (END/IPS/gm/kb/mk/97)


Origin: Washington/LITERATURE-AFRICA/
----

[c] 1997, InterPress Third World News Agency (IPS)
All rights reserved



------------------------------

Date: 27 Jul 1997 21:19:00 GMT
From: momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Fwd: AFRICA-AMERICAS: The Lost Ones are back
Message-ID: <2505961438.283271178@inform-bbs.dk>

Copyright 1997 InterPress Service, all rights reserved.
Worldwide distribution via the APC networks.

*** 23-Jul-97 ***

Title: AFRICA-AMERICAS: The Lost Ones are Back

By Lewis Machipisa

HARARE, Jul 23 (IPS) - Centuries ago, they were brutally shipped
out of Africa to work on plantations in the Americas. Now they are
now coming back armed with dollars to help pull their mother
continent out of poverty, and reap some benefit in the process.

''We are here and we will never be separated again,'' thundered
Rev. Leon Howard Sullivan, convener of the Fourth African/African-
American Summit, which was officially opened here on Wednesday.

''We have returned with something to give back to Africa. What
Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia have done, Africa can do too. In
the next decades we can compete with any developing country in the
world. But only if we unite,'' Sullivan told the Jul 22-25 summit.

More than 1,000 delegates are attending the conference,
including the heads of state of Senegal, Botswana and Swaziland,
the prime minister of Angola, delegations from Gabon, Cote
d'Ivoire and the Organisation of African Unity as well as business
representatives from Africa and the Americas.

Their agenda includes issues such as democracy and peace, AIDS,
women's rights, the media, communication, food security, the
elimination of illiteracy, and the development of economic ties.

''We don't want America to see Africa as a backward continent
with monkeys and Tarzans but as the last frontier in investment,''
said Sullivan, a renowned U.S. civil and human rights activist.

''Besides, investing in Africa creates jobs back in America.
Look at the Marshall Plan (launched by the U.S. after World War II
to get Europe back on its feet). Building Europe helped strengthen
America. So this is not charity,'' Sullivan added.

Zimbabwean President Robert Mubabe, who officially opened the
meeting, said Africans and African-Americans needed each other
because of historical and sentimental reasons which must form a
basis for strengthening links between them.

''We must devise ways and means to meet the many new challenges
we face in common through co-operation in many fields, as well as
to recognise and take advantage of the many investments and
business opportunities that so far have not been fully
appreciated.'' said Mugabe.

The aims of the summit include raising Africa's profile in the
U.S. and encouraging business ties.

The U.S. buys about 18 percent of Africa's total exports, and
this trade is expanding rapidly, say experts. The North American
presence in Africa is led by conglomerates such as General Motors,
the Coca Cola Company and information technology giant, IBM.
African-American businesses are still under-represented, although
their interest in investing in the continent has been increasing
since the first African/African-American Summit, held in 1991.

Mugabe said African economic development must not continue to
remain a pipe dream. ''The new struggle in Africa now is for the
achievement of rapid economic growth.''

He said that, while traditional aid still has a role to play
given the Africa's lack of infrastructure, the time had come for
the private sector to establish joint ventures that will create
African entrepreneurs who have the potential to strengthen
cooperation between Africa and America.

For a long time, Mugabe said, the U.S. has tended to regard
Africa as a marginal part of the world which ''belonged'' to
Europe. ''Ours has been a continent in which the United States
became interested only as a stage for the Cold War,'' he noted.
''We are confident that image of the continent is now behind us
all.

''This old negative image of Africa will only be fully erased
if we continue to see many Americans coming to and seeking
opportunities in Africa to engage fully in the many business
ventures that are on offer.''

In a statement circulated at the summit, UNESCO director
General Federico Mayor said that the meeting was timely as it was
an ''appropriate massive response to Africa's appeal for a new
partnership which the U.N. system is also trying to promote -- the
U.N. Special Initiative For Africa.''

''The current turmoil we are witnessing in many African
countries highlights the need for us all to focus on that most
precious possession of Africa,'' said Mayor, ''... and the key to
the solution of its problems.

''Investors in Africa quite naturally have been inclined to pay
attention to the profits and gains in their investments. This is
quite natural in a world where they, too, have obligations to
their shareholders and to those who invest in their projects.

''However, their actions would be more positive should they pay
more attention to the fate of the African workers without whom
those profits could not be realised.'' (end/ips/lm/kb/97)


Origin: Harare/AFRICA-AMERICAS/
----

[c] 1997, InterPress Third World News Agency (IPS)
All rights reserved


------------------------------

Date: Sun, 27 Jul 1997 22:29:54 -0700 (PDT)
From: "A. Loum" <tloum@u.washington.edu>
To: Gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: on leave (fwd)
Message-ID: <Pine.OSF.3.96.970727222930.9809E-100000@saul7.u.washington.edu>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII




---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Sun, 27 Jul 1997 22:27:19 -0700
From: Ylva Hernlund <yher@u.washington.edu>
Subject: on leave

Ylva Hernlund will be out of the country until August 1998. There is
presently no e-mail forwarding address, but I can be reached by snail mail
at c/o SAWO PO BOX 958 Banjul The Gambia, or by FAX at (220) 49 60 42
(include telephone number 49 63 76 on the cover sheet, as the post office
has to call me to come pick up faxes).




------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 10:24:02 +0200
From: "A.Dibba" <adibba@online.no>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Message
Message-ID: <01BC9B40.5F2D5570@NTWK4_0_96-31>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Hello Sisters, Brother and Friends.
I would like to make suggestion to Gambian-list members.
It seems to me there are lot of mails which come to the list ,are not =
intended for the list or are more or less personal mail.
Some examples:
ADD SOMEBODY TO THE LIST.
A mail could be send to one of the list managers, rather than sending =
this massage to all the list members who does nothing other than =
deleting it.

CONGRATUALATING/ CONDOLENCE MESSAGE TO SOMEBODY
Send a personal/private massage to the person(s) concern.=20

WELCOMING NEW MEMBER.
Why not send to the person concern a warm welcoming message to the =
person's private email address.

I hope you would kindly consider my points and I would high appreciate =
any comment about this issue and I do not intend to step on anyone's =
toes intentionally.

With Regards

Abdoulie Dibba




------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 05:03:42 -0400
From: Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: Message
Message-ID: <33DC606E.6CCC20C5@earthlink.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

A.Dibba wrote:
>
> Hello Sisters, Brother and Friends.
> I would like to make suggestion to Gambian-list members.
> It seems to me there are lot of mails which come to the list ,are not >intended for the list or are more or less personal mail.
[...]
> I hope you would kindly consider my points and I would high >appreciate.any comment about this issue and I do not intend to step on >anyone's toes intentionally.

I agree with Abdoulie Dibba here.

While most of these messages reflect kind gestures, they are also
somewhat inhibiting to quite a few of us especially those of us in
countries where transmission speeds are slow and connection fees are
high. I am afraid that we have lost a few members for this very reason
- members who could have contributed well to this forum.

I would also like to add the issue of quoting original messages. Please
only quote the relative parts of the original message and not the entire
piece. If you find that you are responding to the entire message then I
do not believe there is any need to quote anything at all since the
"Re:" on the subject heading should indicate what you are responding to.

If in your response you want to distinguish one particular message from
a member in a series with the same subject heading, I would suggest
beginning your response with something like:

Responding to X's message that begins: (quote first couple of lines)

I think this way those who are interested can always go back to the
message you are referring to.

If your software automatically quotes messages and you have problems
disabling this feature, let us know and perhaps we can help.

Peace.

Latir Gheran

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 11:20:06 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: Message
Message-ID: <19970728102408.AAA34118@LOCALNAME>

Mr. Dibba, I agree with most of the points you mention here
especially personal mails to the list, which had been discussed
several times earlier.

Here is a tip of how to Subscribe or Unsubscribe to the Gambia-l
without sending a message to the whole list:-

1. The message should be sent to <listproc@u.washington.edu>

2. Leave the 'Subject' field empty

3. In the message area just write:-

subscribe gambia-l <your name> (not the e-mail)
or
unsubscribe gambia-l

YOU CAN'T ADD A FRIEND THIS WAY BECAUSE IT IS THE SUBSCRIBER
HIM / HERSELF WHO SHOULD SEND THE ABOVE MESSAGE!!!!!!

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Example:- To add myself to the list, I just send an e-mail

TO: listproc@u.washington.edu
Subject:
Cc:


subscribe gambia-l Momodou Camara
_____________________________________

This message is only received by subscription managers who will
then make the necessary addition. The other alternative is
to send a message to one of the subscription managers (Amadou S.
Janneh, Sarian Loum, Latjor Ndow or Momodou Camara).

However, the welcoming message to all new members is also a means
of informing other members that someone new has joined our Bantaba
(pencha bi).


Momodou Camara

On 28 Jul 97 at 10:24, A.Dibba wrote:

> Hello Sisters, Brother and Friends.
> I would like to make suggestion to Gambian-list members.
> It seems to me there are lot of mails which come to the list ,are
> not intended for the list or are more or less personal mail. Some
> examples: ADD SOMEBODY TO THE LIST. A mail could be send to one of
> the list managers, rather than sending this massage to all the list
> members who does nothing other than deleting it.
>
> CONGRATUALATING/ CONDOLENCE MESSAGE TO SOMEBODY
> Send a personal/private massage to the person(s) concern.
>
> WELCOMING NEW MEMBER.
> Why not send to the person concern a warm welcoming message to the
> person's private email address.
>
> I hope you would kindly consider my points and I would high
> appreciate any comment about this issue and I do not intend to step
> on anyone's toes intentionally.
>
> With Regards
>
> Abdoulie Dibba
>
>
>

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 11:30:46 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: Message
Message-ID: <19970728103448.AAA9074@LOCALNAME>

On 28 Jul 97 at 5:03, Latir Downes-Thomas wrote:

> Please only quote the relative parts of the original message and not
> the entire piece. If you find that you are responding to the entire
> message then I do not believe there is any need to quote anything at
> all since the "Re:" on the subject heading should indicate what you
> are responding to.

This is a good point that we should all remember because its only
taking unnecessary space and transmission time.

> If your software automatically quotes messages and you have problems
> disabling this feature, let us know and perhaps we can help.
>
I am sure there are many who will be willing to help.


Momodou Camara

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 12:06:19 +0200
From: Andrea Klumpp <klumpp@kar.dec.com>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: TRIP TO OAU SUMMIT(CONFIRMATION NEEDED)
Message-ID: <33DC6F1B.252B@kar.dec.com>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

pa sowe wrote:
>
> Hello Andrea
>
> You stated that secretary of state for finance and economics said that, the
> total amount
> which the president and his deligation spent, including the cost of special
> flight and allowances
> totals to the sum of 742,772.00. IS THIS AMOUNT CORRECT?
>
> Pa Sowe
>
>
>

Yes, it is true. It's no joke and no typing error, as Momodou Camara
confirmed in his mail, too.

Andrea

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 15:40:08 +0200
From: =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
To: "'gambia'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: The dath of a gambian in a danish prison
Message-ID: <9B236DF9AF96CF11A5C94044F32190311010B4@dkdifs02.dif.dk>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Friends, I agree that we have to shorten our messages, and try to put
the private ones directly to the person.
But I want to inform you that today I contacted Amnesty Int., Denmark,
and they also find the information given very "interesting" !!. The
Amnesty rules forbid the danish amnesty to take action in Denmark, so I
was informed to contact Amnesty International Secretary in London, the
Gambian research team. And at the same time find a danish journalist,
who could try to find out in Horsens, Jutland (the prison), what is the
"case" about.
If the gambian society in Denmark has contacted Amnesty in Denmark, =
they
have doctors, who could go and make the post mortem examination, I was
told. So it seems that the gambian society in Denmark must try to put =
up
a better network and action-plan, when something "special" happens here
in Denmark, so they can react with power. I=B4ll come back later. =
Asbj=F8rn
Nordam




------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 09:47:21 -0400 (EDT)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: death of Dembo Marong
Message-ID: <199707281347.JAA02802@oak.ffr.mtu.edu>
Content-Type: text


May his Soul Rest In Peace.

Malanding Jaiteh

>
> Last week, one of my relatives by marriage, Dembo Marong was killed due to
> complications from a car accident in The GAmbia. I don't know a lot about him
> in detail except that his father is Nanso Marong from Busumbala. I thought I
> should send this message in case there are any list members who may know him
> and have not heard.
>
> May Allah bless him and the family, Amin
>


------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 16:30:02 +0200
From: "Momodou S Sidibeh" <momodou.sidibeh@stockholm.mail.telia.com>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: SV: Fwd: Re: Fwd: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
Message-ID: <199707281430.QAA08289@d1o2.telia.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

Toma,
It seems that we are indeed burdened with a severe difficulty. The points
you raised are certainly relevant and genuine. Making a 'have-not' nation
in Africa into a have requires paying attention to such intangibles as
culture and social structure, both gravely influenced by the economic
consequences of slavery and colonialism. Naturally even present economic
relations with our so-called trading partners, resting squarely on
in-built inequalities, seem to command a greater measure of our overall
performance. Unfair terms of trade, the strategic locationing of processing
and reserach industries outside Africa (denying us of basic know-how), and
the continuous importation of only the rawest forms of raw-materials all
indicate barriers against economic and industrial take-off for Africa.
Nevertheless economic growth is also influenced by tangibles such as
levels of savings, education, the degree of committment to exports and a
stable political framework that encourages entrepreneurship and private
property, amongst other things. But having taken stock of our overall
brutal historical encounter with, especially, the West, we must eventually
assume all present difficulties as challenges which we simply must tackle
in order to MOVE ON? i.e there is a point where we must begin to be
self-critical, especially at those instances where we can recognise that
policy formulation, and consequently, policy implementation has been
grossly faulty and inadequate. So I think Lamin and the Nigerian experts
have a point there.

Infact, I think some of them raised very important issues which need
closer study? Prof. Osita Eze said that..."one of the basic problems is
....we consume what we don't produce and...cannot afford". This is
important in that it is suggestive of self-reliance
(of which President Jammeh spoke a few days ago) and giving savings and
capital accumualtion a serious boost. Since most of our national markets
are so tiny, we must rely on ourselves for a good part of the investments,
say, light industries may call for.
Prof. Akin Mabogunje also maintains that "going to the basics is going to
the real people who produce". The seriousness of this cannot be
overemphasised, largely because, I am of the opinion,
that an agricultural revolution is a prerequisite to industialisation. The
day African politicians bring in the marginalised farmers within the
mechanism of the world economy is the day true democracy would begin in
Africa.

However, I am also sceptical of the above professor's claim that Nigeria's
problems are partly caused by "excessive love of riches, which bred
corruption, and a hatred of other people's success". I think the professor
is (OR I AM) confusing two closely related but separate matters.
Excessive love of riches is simply GREED. (I think Lamin also made a
mention of this much earlier on as a very negative character trait in
Africans?). CAPITALISM IS ESSENTIALLY ORGANISED GREED. Bertrand Russel once
wrote something to the effect that where everybody has enough, the fact
that some have more than enough would become unimportant. Because most
Americans have enough, nobody minds the excessesive wealth of men like Bill
Gates and Larry Ellison! The greed that drives these men towards their near
dominance of the global software industry is infact admired! Their wealth
does not contrast with the plight of a poor and pauperised population in
their country to cause indignation . But in Africa, where the opposite
condition obtains, the greed of men like Waziri Ibrahim SEEMS pretty
obvious. So the problem is not greed per se, but rather how to legislate,
and as a result regulate business in a manner so that the greed of one does
not infringe upon the best interest of society. Bill, Larry, and Waziri all
obtain there wealth through legitimate means - so we are told anyway. It is
this legislation, with the necessary checks and balances, that should curb
the destructive levels of corruption in Africa, just as it does elsewhere.
[One could be as greedy as IBLIS - who would only go to hell with as many
people as is statistically possible - as long as one remains within the
boundaries of the law]. That it fails to work well is not because of greed.
Greed exists in all human societies where property rights are enshrined
and protected in constitutions; AND, MATHEMATICALLY SPEAKING, ITS INTEGRAL
HAS NO UPPER LIMITS.

BEST REGARDS,
MODOU SIDIBEH.


> Från: M. Njie <mn015@students.stir.ac.uk>
> Till: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
<gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
> Ämne: Re: Fwd: Re: Fwd: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
> Datum: den 25 juli 1997 16:38
>
> Lamin,
>
> Nobody is saying that Africans are not partly to blame for
> the ills of the continent. The fact is Africa's development
> came to a virtual halt for centuries because of slavery and
> colonialism. Most African countries became 'independent' less than

> forty years ago and had to start from scratch. These countries

> were reduced to producers of primary products to feed western
> industries. There is no need for me to go into the
> unfavourable terms of trade imposed by these western countries
> on African produce. The cost of manufactured goods has
> increased tremendously while that of primary produce has
> decreased drastically. Only warped minds, like those of the
> Nigerian 'academics' could fail to see this. Doctors and other
> academics here in Britain contradict each other everyday, depending on

> whose interest they are serving. In the food and drinks
> industry, for example, the situation is so confused, that no
> one really knows what is healthy and what is not. In the
> case of these Nigerians, they happen to be people of like
> minds and interests, and cannot claim to be speaking for
Africa.
>
> The IMF and the World Bank are discredited institutions,
> even in Europe. They have both a credibility and an image
> problem. Let us take the case of The Gambia. When the IMF
> came, hundreds of families lost their sources of income. Unlike
> in Europe, they had nowhere to go to. Many of our public
> corporations were sold to outsiders in the name of
> privatisation, and at giveaway prices. The fact is there was
> no private sector, but only foreign companies making money,
> making money and making money. The story is the same all over

> the world, even though sometimes they try to give the
> impression that things were working in some countries, including

> Ghana and The Gambia. We know this is not true, but somehow
> we tend we leave others to think for us. Figures are figures,

> and statisticians know that the same set of figures can be
> used to tell a different story. It happens here all the time
> with the political parties.
>
> Lamin, I do not exactly know where you stand on this. At
> first I thought they were the ideas of your 'friends'. It is
> extraordinary that some of us are prepared to sweep under the
> carpet, centuries of oppression and concentrate mainly on less
> than four decades of 'independence'. After the Second World
> War, Germany and Japan were completely destroyed, but the type
> of assistance they recieved is nowhere near the usurious
> lending policies of the IMF and the World Bank. Capiltalism is

> based on exploitation, and Africa has been shackled and
> manacled to ensure that this exploitation goes on forever. We
> have to break these chains. We cannot do this when some of
> us are prepared to turn a blind eye to centuries of treachery,
> deceit and exploitation.
>
> I remember in South Africa during the Apartheid era, there
> were 'blacks' hunting down and killing 'blacks'. During Colonial

> days Africans were divided and ruled. Force, bribery and other
> means were used to turn Africans against each other.
> Such tactics are still in vogue. The Nigerian 'academics' are
> the latest, and in my view, willing victims. They are willing
> to sell themselves for a mess of pottage.
>
> HAVE A NICE WEEKEND
> Momodou
>
> On Fri, 25 Jul 1997,
> Momodou Camara wrote:
>
> > Forwarded mail from Lamin Drammeh
> >
> > ---forwarded mail START---
> > From: binta@iuj.ac.jp,Internet
> > To: Momodou Camara
> > Date: 25/07/97 3:37
> > Subject: Re: Fwd: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
> > - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
> > Momodou,
> >
> > Thanks for forwarding these illuminating articles. I guess this one
> > rhymes well with what I have been saying before. Well, I would love to
> > hear comments from members who think(for the most part) that we must
> > continue blaming slavery, colonialism etc for frica's problems.
> >
> > Lamin.
> >
---------------------------END----------------------------------------------

> >
> >
> >
> > --- OffRoad 1.9t registered to Momodou Camara
> >
> >
> >
> >
>

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 11:20:06 -0400 (EDT)
From: EStew68064@aol.com
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: death of Dembo Marong
Message-ID: <970728111806_1658867849@emout02.mail.aol.com>

MALANDING
THANK YOU FOR THE CONDOLENCES FOR DEMBO MARONG
LIS STEWART FATTI

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 17:41:18 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: The dath of a gambian in a danish prison
Message-ID: <19970728164407.AAA23946@LOCALNAME>

On 28 Jul 97 at 15:40, Asbjcrn Nordam wrote:

> The Amnesty rules forbid the danish amnesty to take action in
>Denmark, so I was informed to contact Amnesty International
>Secretary in London, the Gambian research team.

Asbjorn, Amnesty had been contacted in Denmark and London too by the
Gambian Organization. It is not the Gambia research team you should
contact but the Scandinavian or European programme because the
incident occurred in Denmark and not Gambia.
The one responsible for Denmark in London was on holidays and the
assistant could not be reached when the contact was made.

It is already late for any autopsy because the man is already burried
in the Gambia.

Thanks for your concern.

Momodou Camara

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 11:56:08 -0400 (EDT)
From: ASJanneh@aol.com
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Bissau Swapping Pesos for CFA francs
Message-ID: <970728115601_-1976037631@emout15.mail.aol.com>

News on Bissau's entry into the CFA zone.

Peace!
Amadou Scattred Janneh
(From the Smoky Mountains of Tennessee)



------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 12:02:19 -0400 (EDT)
From: ASJanneh@aol.com
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Bissau story, again
Message-ID: <970728120055_1313795075@emout07.mail.aol.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-type: multipart/mixed;
boundary="PART.BOUNDARY.0.26964.emout07.mail.aol.com.870105655"


--PART.BOUNDARY.0.26964.emout07.mail.aol.com.870105655
Content-ID: <0_26964_870105655@emout07.mail.aol.com.4362>
Content-type: text/plain

Sorry folks, I messed up and didn't attach the Bissau story to my previous
mail.

And I concur with Dibba and Camara's recommendations on List Traffic. These
were raised so many times, so it's time we take such concerns seriously.

Salaam!
Amadou Scattred Janneh



--PART.BOUNDARY.0.26964.emout07.mail.aol.com.870105655
Content-ID: <0_26964_870105655@emout07.mail.aol.com.4363>
Content-type: text/plain;
name="BISSAU"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

ABIDJAN, July 28 (Reuter) - Guinea-Bissau, an impoverished, Portuguese-sp=
eaking West African country of one million people, becomes a fully-fledge=
d member of the Franc Zone when it swaps its present currency, the peso, =
for the CFA franc on August 1. =

=0D
Guinea-Bissau joined the West African Monetary Union (UMOA) alongside Ben=
in, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo in May. The =
central bank of this West African part of the zone, the BCEAO, is in Daka=
r, Senegal. =

=0D
The BCEAO official in charge of the swap said it would be completed on ti=
me, despite rumours to the contrary. =

=0D
``To cut short this rumour, I had to go on television (in Guinea-Bissau) =
last Thursday to say that the operation is finishing on July 31, no later=
,'' Patrice Kouame told Ivory Coast daily Fraternite-Matin in an intervie=
w. =

=0D
The authorities had given themselves three months because of the geograph=
ical difficulties of effecting the change in a country of many islands an=
d villages, he said. Pesos and CFA francs have been circulating in tandem=
during this period. =

=0D
``Given the communications problems between the villages, we had to mobil=
ise a helicopter for a week to carry out exchange operations on the vario=
us inhabited islands,'' Kouame said. =

=0D
The pesos are being swapped at a rate of 65 per one CFA franc, a figure h=
e acknowledged might cause problems of arithmetic for poorly-educated pea=
sants and other citizens. =

=0D
However, that was the market rate prevailing in December when the decisio=
n to bring in Guinea-Bissau was taken, he said. The peso had fallen from =
42 per CFA franc at the end of 1995. =

=0D
The CFA franc itself is fixed at 100 per French Franc, and there are curr=
ently around 620 CFA francs per U.S. dollar. =

=0D
Kouame denied the currency change had fuelled inflation in Guinea-Bissau,=
although he said some traders might have taken advantage of the situatio=
n to round up, or simply push up, prices. =

=0D
The authorities had monitored a basket of 26 prices and, while some had r=
isen, that was mainly due to seasonal factors. =

=0D
Rice had gone up, for example, because at this time of the year traders u=
se it to pay farmers for their cashew nut crop. Since it is being used as=
a currency as well as a foodstuff, demand is high and the price traditio=
nally rises. =

=0D
Kouame sidestepped a question on whether neighbouring Guinea might join t=
he Zone. BCEAO governor Charles Konan Banny said recently it would be a g=
ood thing if Guinea and Gambia, a state almost entirely enclosed by Seneg=
al, were members. =

=0D
The present members are in the process of creating a free trade zone and =
deepening the union in other ways to transform it into the West African E=
conomic and Monetary Union (UEMOA). =

=0D
09:54 07-28-97
=0D

--PART.BOUNDARY.0.26964.emout07.mail.aol.com.870105655--


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 01:27:11 +0900 (JST)
From: binta@iuj.ac.jp
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: SV: Fwd: Re: Fwd: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
Message-ID: <199707281621.BAA13134@mlsv.iuj.ac.jp>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; CHARSET=US-ASCII

Mr Sidibeh,

It may not be fair to say that the greatest policy ever formulated by
African leaders ( and of course a good chunk of the academicians)since
the early 1960s is the castigation of the West for slavery and
colonialism and how that continues to impair African development. At
the same time such an utterance may not be outrageous. Unless we stop
fretting about that 'important past' as if talking about it is a
panacea to our problems, I am afraid we will not make much progress.
Now that that policy of blaming the West is leading is nowhere, why
don't we become a little more introspective?

On the question of greed, the problem is not much with our businessmen
as long as they stay within the confines of the law i.e., pay the
required custom duties, taxes, and fulfill their social responsibility.
But imagine that many of the wealthiest men/women in Africa are former
politicians and civil servants. What tends to differentiate them from
Gates and co. is that the latter have invested significantly in their
own countries. Instead of stashing away these sums in bank accounts
abroad and in foreign real estate, perhaps many of us would have been
happier if they invested at home. The problem with this reasoning is
clear-cut. They risk the possibility of losing what they took! Another
factor you do not seem to consider is that many of our own rich people
bask first in conspicuous spending ( limousines, big houses,
flambouyant ceremonies etc) before considering the creation of jobs
for the less fortunate. This is where our greed is different. I guess
we are all aware that personal desire to better oneself is what is
driving the world economy to this phenominal level, but when that
greed merely reduces the national cake in the form of leakages it
becomes a vice. That is what some will call the 'African greed'.

Better we stop fretting and fretting!

Lamin.



------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 18:30:57 GMT0BST
From: "BEYAI" <P.L.Beyai@newcastle.ac.uk>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
Message-ID: <290E8D93C04@TOWN9.ncl.ac.uk>


I agree with Lamin entirely.
" In search of the Beast" The beast for our economic predicament is
within Africa itself. Pointing an accusing finger to others may not
do us any good. We have been blaming the same people for
years without any change in our position. Can't we think of
alternative ways of solving our own problems? After all Africa is
one of the several places affected by colonialism. While others were
concentrating in re-building their countries, we were busy siphoning
our limited resources from home to foreign countries.

It seems to me that economic development is in favour of the newly
independent African countries. If that is anything to go by then
where lies the much blamed colonialism? Our problem is that self interest is placed before
that of the nation and unless that attitude is changed, we shall be
blaming the colonial masters for generations to come.

The time, effort and money we expend in discussing the subject could
better be used elsewhere.


Cheers,
PLB




------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 19:33:21 +0100 (BST)
From: O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: New member
Message-ID: <Pine.SOL.3.91.970728185539.3045A-100000@harrier.cen.brad.ac.uk>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Susan,
Happy to hear that you are would be linguist. I also read linguistic and
in my dissertation concentrated on sociolinguistic and phonology. I wrote
specifically on the Gambian languages but the phonology was on pulaar.

I would be very happy if we can liaise more to see how 'it tiques'.

I too read Bass' 'lectures'. I was impressed by his ability in writing
many things under one subject matter. However I was dissapointed that he
was not giving references and secondly his survey of the
sociolinguistic aspect or languages of the Gambia was totally
insufficient as he left out The manjakoes the koniagis, the ballantas
etc.meaning that he was just taking from other people's writings who
unfamiliar with linguistic landsscape of the country just mmention the
main languages.
Futhermore his analysis of the mandinka sentence structure and verb
characteristics show that he is not familiar with the quintessence of the
african languages particularly the Gambian languages or generative
grammar or government et liage I am speaking french here but I know you
understand what I am reffering to.
Even the secerts of the TOWER of BABEL was not clearly analysed.

I hope Bass will reply to me so that he can conduct some evening classes
for the students on the topics he has so adamantly taken up without even
quoting even Chomsky for fro reading Bass is not an authority in
linguistics or on the Gambian languages. He could have even refferd to
Kodu mbassy Njie, one of the leading generativists of the Gambian wollof
or languages.
Sorry to bother you with this cliche, however I do not intend to
destablise one of the lecturers of this Bantaba, but I think that when
one is writing on languages especially on african languages one should
understand how they really tique to avoid the transfer of an alien
analytical approach without understanding the substance which animates
it.
In the event that you are interested we may devise a way to exchange
materials though my works are totally in french. I wouldnot mind
translating them.
By the way do you know any institution which has african languages key board?

ajaraama

Omar Baldeh











On Tue, 15 Jul 1997, Susan Renee Hayes wrote:

> Greetings,
>
> I'm Susan Hayes and I live in Bloomington, Indiana. I went to Gambia as
> a Peace Corps volunteer in 1988 and stayed for two years in Mansajang
> Kunda, near Basse, URD. My husband (who I met during that time) is
> Ebrima Jallow. I am technically a graduate student here at Indiana
> University studying linguistics (and I have updated references on African
> language classification to add to Mr. Drammeh's respectable introduction
> to the subject). My husband, a tailor by trade, and I have recently gone
> into the tailoring business here in Bloomington and I have been spending
> more time on that than my dissertation research (which will be concerning
> the Fula language). We have two small children who also get in the way
> (happily) of finishing a graduate degree. I joined the list with the
> hope of getting information about how things are going in Gambia and to
> hear from others from and connected with the country.
>
> Thanks,
>
> Susan
>

------------------------------

Date: 28 Jul 1997 18:32:57 GMT
From: momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Fwd: DISARMAMENT: US Gun Lobby Takes Aim at UN Arms Curbs
Message-ID: <626655198.287886779@inform-bbs.dk>

Copyright 1997 InterPress Service, all rights reserved.
Worldwide distribution via the APC networks.

*** 23-Jul-97 ***

Title: DISARMAMENT: US Gun Lobby Takes Aim at UN Arms Curbs

By Thalif Deen

UNITED NATIONS, Jul 23 (IPS) - The influential National Rifle
Association (NRA) is turning its guns on a U.N. initiative aimed
at curbing the flow of small arms and light weapons throughout the
world.

A U.N. panel of government experts, ending two weeks of
deliberations behind closed doors, is now compiling a report
recommending measures to restrict the flow of light weapons. But
the most powerful gun lobby in the United States says that gun
control is not within the proper mandate of the world body.

''Any U.N. action is bound to affect national firearms
legislation in this country,'' says Tom Mason, the NRA
representative at the United Nations.

''Our position is that gun-control is an internal matter - and
an extremely complex subject - that should be left to governments
to deal with domestically,'' Mason told IPS.

The NRA preaches that ''guns don't kill people, only people
kill people'' and, while gun control is a hotly debated U.S.
political issue in the United States, the United Nations should
not be involved - for its own sake.

Mason warns that at a time when the United Nations has come
under attack in the U.S. Congress, it would not be wise for the
world body to take on a highly sensitive political issue.

''As the Panel well knows, the topic of U.S. participation in
the United Nations has undergone considerable debate in the U.S.
Congress recently,'' he says.

Secretary-General Kofi Annan has said that small arms - mostly
AK-47 assault rifles, grenade launchers, machine guns, anti-
personnel landmines, rifles and grenades - are the weapons of
choice in conflicts in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Europe and
the former Soviet republics. Last week he announced the creation
of a new U.N. Department of Disarmament whose mandate also covers
small arms, along with weapons of mass destruction and
conventional arms.

''We should be able to track the movement of small arms and the
kind of weapons that have really caused havoc in the Great Lakes
region of Africa, in Albania and other places around the world,''
he told reporters last week.

Mason admits that the United Nations is geared to work with
member states towards disarmament in the field of strategic
weapons, including nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. ''But
small arms are a whole new dimension. Hundreds of millions of
civilians do not lawfully use and own strategic and heavy weapons,
but they lawfully own and use small arms.''

A reasonable examination of the question of small arms must
take into consideration the significant extent of legal civilian
ownership, Mason says.

The NRA, which last year was accorded the status of a non-
governmental organisation (NGO) at the United Nations, says it has
the right to express its views in its capacity as the ''oldest,
largest and most active'' gun lobby in the United States.

Mason says the Panel is really concerned with the image of
numerous young men armed with AK-47 assault rifles threating civil
order in a developing country.

''This is a political situation in which the real question
concerns how the firearms were obtained and not the firearms per
se,'' he told the U.N. Panel last week.

Mason says it was difficult to make a distinction between
legitimate hunting weapons and those used in civil conflicts.
''Hunting is fundamental to many cultures and firearms are
integral to that activity. In the U.S. alone, there are 12 million
deer hunters. Non-hunting societies should not seek to impose
their values on hunting societies.''

Last year former Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, who
led a campaign to curb the proliferation of small arms, complained
that the world body was not doing enough to stem the flow of light
weapons..

''The world is awash with them and traffic in them is very
difficult to monitor, let alone intercept,'' he said.

Boutros-Ghali proposed that the existing U.N. arms register be
expanded to include imports and exports of small arms such as
handguns, rifles, machine guns, mortars, rocket launchers, and
anti-personnel landmines.

The Register currently records the import and export of only
seven major categories of arms: battle tanks, armored combat
vehicles, large calibre artillery systems, fighter aircraft,
attack helicopters, warships, and missiles and missile launchers.

Boutros-Ghali said progress in the area of weapons of mass
destruction and major weapons systems must be followed by
progress in conventional arms, especially light weapons.
(END/IPS/td/mk/97)


Origin: Washington/DISARMAMENT/
----

[c] 1997, InterPress Third World News Agency (IPS)
All rights reserved


------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 18:37:40 +-300
From: BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: The dath of a gambian in a danish prison
Message-ID: <01BC9BA8.F7F57180@dikg.qatar.net.qa>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="---- =_NextPart_000_01BC9BA8.F8063A60"


------ =_NextPart_000_01BC9BA8.F8063A60
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Mr.Nordam!
Thanks for the contacts you have made.I agree with you very strongly =
that the Gambian Organisation in Denmark must make sure that its house =
is ordered and sophisticated enough ,so that when they smell something =
fishy next time they can make sufficient noise in Denmark to serve as a =
warning to everyone that black live and dignity cannot be molested with =
impunity anylonger.

Regards Basss!
----------
From: Asbj=F8rn Nordam[SMTP:asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk]
Sent: 28 =D1=CC=C8, 1997 16:40
To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
Subject: The dath of a gambian in a danish prison

Friends, I agree that we have to shorten our messages, and try to put
the private ones directly to the person.
But I want to inform you that today I contacted Amnesty Int., Denmark,
and they also find the information given very "interesting" !!. The
Amnesty rules forbid the danish amnesty to take action in Denmark, so I
was informed to contact Amnesty International Secretary in London, the
Gambian research team. And at the same time find a danish journalist,
who could try to find out in Horsens, Jutland (the prison), what is the
"case" about.
If the gambian society in Denmark has contacted Amnesty in Denmark, they
have doctors, who could go and make the post mortem examination, I was
told. So it seems that the gambian society in Denmark must try to put up
a better network and action-plan, when something "special" happens here
in Denmark, so they can react with power. I=B4ll come back later. =
Asbj=F8rn
Nordam






------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 21:56:32 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <19970728210128.AAA49294@LOCALNAME>

I have been thinking about a question which I always wanted to to ask
and perhaps Mr. Baldeh, Susan or another linguist on the list could
elaborate.

Is it not possible for The Gambian linguists to create a new language
from the existing ones which could become our national language in
twenty to thirty years time?
The new language could be a mixture of the most simple words from
each of the present languages.

Any comments?

Momodou Camara

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 22:29:22 +0100
From: Bahary <bdukuray@login.eunet.no>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: False Report
Message-ID: <33DD0F2E.38E3@login.eunet.no>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

Hello everyone.

Let defend ourself.

I don´t agree with the police report in Denmark about Jonkong case, they
killed the Jonkong. I want The Chairman of the Gambian Organization in
Denmark to write letter to the Gambian Organization
in worldwide to take good action againstDanish government.We all
demanded apostmortem which had not been done.

May allah have mercy on his soul.


Best Regards
B.Dukuray

------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 22:59:12 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: Gambian dies in Danish jail (fwd)
Message-ID: <19970728221120.AAA34132@LOCALNAME>

On 26 Jul 97, Daddy Sang wrote:

> Perhaps we need to remind our consul in
> denmark what his obligations are especially to Gambian nationals
> whose existence in that country is one of the main reasons he
> represnts Gambia. It is very disheartening for a consul general to
> act like that, understandably, it was a holiday week but your fellow
> national just died under mysterious circumstances; it is encombent
> upon him to find out what really happened.

Mr. Sang, the consul is not a Gambian but a Dane (just for
clarification). When we told him that it was necessary that an
autopsy was necessary because it is unusual for a Gambian to commit
suicide, his first comment was that "the Danish police do not go about
killing people in custody". It was after we mentioned Babanding
Fatty's case to him that he began to have a second thought and
decided to send a fax.

Momodou Camara




------------------------------

Date: Mon, 28 Jul 1997 17:12:02 -0500 (EST)
From: Susan Renee Hayes <srhayes@indiana.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <Pine.HPP.3.91.970728165143.4790A-100000@juliet.ucs.indiana.edu>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII


Greetings,

Here are some of my first thoughts on the creation of a Gambian national
language. I'm not good at supporting these opinions with reserach
perhaps Mr. Baldeh can fill in specifics). First of all, it would never
work. Even if we were to narrow down the languages of the Gambia to the
three most widely spoken languages, i.e. Wolof, Mandinka and Fula, who
would be able to agree on which word from which language would be used?
There would be no way to decide which is the "simplest" since that woudl
be relative. Fula and Wolof are closely realted but those who have heard
both will know they sounds completely different and although the
processes used in Fula to make plurals was the same in Wolof, Wolof no
longer uses those same prcesses to the same degree as Fula. For example,
in Fula 'man' = gorko while 'men' = worbe. The last two letters in each
word is actually a suffix that denotes singular or plural (and it get a
lot more complicated from there). Mandinka is fairly distantly related
to Wolof and Fula. Some argue tat the Mande languages were the first to
branch off from the super-family called Niger-Congo (or Congo-Kordofanian).

I could suggest using Mandinka as the national language since it is the
most commonly heard langauge all over the Gambia (I'm sure some
Wolof-speakers are shaking their heads). You can use Mandinak all over
the country but Fula isn't as common in the urban areas and Wolof is less
common upcountry. Mandinka is also very simialr to Bambara and therefor
we could also communicate easily with Malians. However, Wolof is also
widely spoken especially on the North Bank and it is also widely used in
Senegal. Consider that Fula is the language with the widest geographical
distribution over all of Africa (not counting non-African languages).
There are Fula-speakers from Mauritania to Sudan to Cameroon and all
countries in between ( its more widely spoken geographically than Hausa
or Swahili). So no how would we choose.

Artificial means of constructiong or even controlling lnaguage and
language change do not work. Examples include the French Academy's
attempt to outlaw English words in French advertising. People will use
the words that work and language change is as natural and constant as any
other biological process you can think of. Efforts to establish a
simplified European language "Esperanto" have been interesting but
haven't produced any real Esperanto speakers.

And even if you could come up with a single Gambian language, Gambian
would not be able to use it outside and would still learn English or
French to commmunicate. Perhaps this would be like the currency in the
Gambian. It is one Gambain currency but its only useful in the Gambia
and I know most people would prefer a dollar to a dalasi.

One last point to this rambling. Could you convimce any one ethnic group
to give up their own language for another? I know my husband preferred
only to speak Fula and when he was younger he would only respond in Fula
although he understood others. He only relented and spoke Mandinka with
me because that was the only language I could speak. I know at least
once I greeted a Gambian person in a government office in Banjul in
Mandinak and they were thoroughly insulted and respoded in English with a
very unhappy face so there are many more issues concerning prestige and
social status the I think Mr Baldeh can address.

Sorry it was so long... I guess I've been saving up. They won't all be
like this.

Susan

PS We'd like to travel to Gambia in December... where are the cheapest
airline tickets?



------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 10:39:32 +0200
From: "A.Dibba" <adibba@online.no>
To: "Gambia-L (E-mail)" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Basic education for everyone and electrification of the whole Gambia
Message-ID: <01BC9C0B.B477BA90@NTWK4_0_96-31>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

The two of the most important things for Gambia as nation, and can't do =
without are basic education for everyone and electrification of the =
whole land. This two things holds keys to lot of our social and =
economic problems. To successfully accomplish this task it needs lot of =
sacrifice , courage from everyone and long time investment for about a =
period of 15 to 20 years.[This is not a long time in a life of a nation. =
We have to sacrifice for the coming generation to benefit from it].
To make my point a bit clearer:
It is a clear and well known fact that people are migrating from rural =
to urban areas (....Banjul and the Kombos.)
You know why : Better schools, Better communication/Transport =
facilities, Better job opportunity -Industries, Departments and Hotels =
and tourism and hospitals/clinics, cinemas, Night clubs, Supermarkets, =
airport and seaport .
Can the Kombos and Banjul support all this people and give them decent =
life ?.=20
NO - As results we have more crimes, grumbling, discontent, corruption, =
fighting and all sort of social evils.=20
And what can be done about it:
National massive investment in reliable electricity / water supply and =
schools .Other things needed for different areas of development will =
follow as result. Even the government offices and department will =
decentralize, then industries will follow- because there would be a =
cheaper living / labour cost in the rural areas than urban - More profit =
for the industries. People will try alternative source of earning their =
livings by farming, handicrafts, etc...... .

With Regards

Abdoulie Dibba
=00=00

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 11:30:38 +0100 (BST)
From: OMAR SOWE <sowe@coventry.ac.uk>
To: Momodou Camara <momodou@inform-bbs.dk>
Cc: "GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: Fwd: UNSUBSCRIBE FROM THE MAILING LIST
Message-ID: <Pine.OSF.3.91.970729112414.18417B-100000@leofric>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Sir,
Could you please unsubscribe my address from the Gambia-l mailing list
please.

A mail was sent some time back concerning this issue, and nothing was done
about it.

I will be very grateful if this matter is resolve in immediate effect,
Thank you.

Omar


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 12:31:49 +0100 (BST)
From: "M. Njie" <mn015@students.stir.ac.uk>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: SV: Fwd: Re: Fwd: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
Message-ID: <Pine.HPP.3.91.970729115211.4240A-100000@whale.students.stir.ac.uk>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Tomaa,
I am in entire agreement with you. One only has to look
at the billions owned by Africans in Swiss and other banks,
the extravagant, not to say obscene, lifestyles led by many
African leaders and the autocratic, if not monarchical, regimes
found in many African countries, to know that we have got a
lot to answer for for our present plight. These are issues
that we Africans need to address as a matter of urgency.

If Africa's economic advancement is to have any remote
chance of success, it has to go its own way. It may be hard
and difficult, but operating within the present framework set
by western countries will only increase our poverty. We may be
criticised for protecting our interests, but that is what all
the western powers do. The western powers did not achieve
economic dominance through co-operation and fair competition with
Africa, but through incessant brutalisation, rape, and plunder
of the African continent, lasting centuries. How can we ever
forget this? And how can anybody honestly say that this has ended?

Regards,
Momodou


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 12:33:03 +0100 (BST)
From: "M. Njie" <mn015@students.stir.ac.uk>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <Pine.HPP.3.91.970729122744.4240B-100000@whale.students.stir.ac.uk>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Momodou,

I will contribute on this topic, as it also touches on my
area of study. I cannot start it now as I am travelling. I
should be back within the next twenty-four hours.

Regards,
Momodou


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 14:14:43 +-300
From: BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: Gambian dies in Danish jail (fwd)
Message-ID: <01BC9C29.C699ED60@dikj.qatar.net.qa>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="---- =_NextPart_000_01BC9C29.C6A31520"


------ =_NextPart_000_01BC9C29.C6A31520
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WELL, IF THE PERSON SUPPOSEDLY WORKING TO PROTECT THE INTEREST OF THE =
GAMBIANS IN DENMARK HAS AN ATTITUDE THAT IS TENDENTIOUSLY DEFENSIVE =
ABOUT THE DANISH AUTHORITIES REPUTATION, EVEN BEFORE HE COULD VERIFY =
CLAIMS BY GAMBIAN NATIONALS IN DENMARK,THEN PERHAPS THAT PERSON SHOULD =
FIND HIMSELF ANOTHER JOB.WHY CAN'T ONE OF THE LONG RESIDING GAMBIANS IN =
DENMARK TELL THE GAMBIA GOVERNMENT THAT HE IS PERFECTLY CAPABLE OF =
PERFORMING THE JOB OF THE CONSUL?FOR HOW LONG CAN WE GO ON HIRING OTHERS =
TO DO OUR DIFFICULT JOBS FOR US?!

REGARDS BASSSS!

----------
From: Camara, Momodou[SMTP:momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk]
Sent: 28 =D1=CC=C8, 1997 23:59
To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
Subject: Re: Gambian dies in Danish jail (fwd)

On 26 Jul 97, Daddy Sang wrote:

> Perhaps we need to remind our consul in
> denmark what his obligations are especially to Gambian nationals
> whose existence in that country is one of the main reasons he
> represnts Gambia. It is very disheartening for a consul general to
> act like that, understandably, it was a holiday week but your fellow
> national just died under mysterious circumstances; it is encombent
> upon him to find out what really happened.=20

Mr. Sang, the consul is not a Gambian but a Dane (just for=20
clarification). When we told him that it was necessary that an=20
autopsy was necessary because it is unusual for a Gambian to commit=20
suicide, his first comment was that "the Danish police do not go about=20
killing people in custody". It was after we mentioned Babanding=20
Fatty's case to him that he began to have a second thought and=20
decided to send a fax.=20

Momodou Camara






------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 15:00:25 -0700
From: "The Gambia-L shadow list" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: Basic education for everyone and electrification of the whole Gambia
Message-ID: <B0000002539@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

This is forwarded from "National Agricultural Research Institute" <nari@commit.gm>
(nari@commit.gm)


Mr Dibba,

Thank you for your useful comments on basic education and electrification
for everyone and every village in the Gambia. As a rural product, I know
the difference between urban and rural life styles, especially in the
absence of safe and clean water supply and other basic amenities which the
rural dwellers enjoy. Although development has its own adverse effects, I
think it is high time for every village/town in the Gambia to start
enjoying some of the amenities, particularly pipe-borne water, electricity
and good access roads which make life more attractive and enjoyable in the
urban areas.

I think you are also on the right track concerning decentralization. This
is one of the best ways to reduce rural-urban drift and provide an enabling
environment for the youth to make the best use of the opportunities and
make life more comfortable themselves and their families, instead of
roaming the streets of urban centres looking for greener pastures. The
Government, I believe, should encourage NGOs to create and run
community-based projects to attract popular participation, in order to
boost the living standard of the rural poor.


----------
From: "The Gambia-L shadow list" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
<gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Basic education for everyone and electrification of the whole
Gambia
Date: Tuesday, July 29, 1997 1:39 AM

The two of the most important things for Gambia as nation, and can't do
without are basic education for everyone and electrification of the whole
land. This two things holds keys to lot of our social and economic
problems. To successfully accomplish this task it needs lot of sacrifice ,
courage from everyone and long time investment for about a period of 15 to
20 years.[This is not a long time in a life of a nation. We have to
sacrifice for the coming generation to benefit from it].
To make my point a bit clearer:
It is a clear and well known fact that people are migrating from rural to
urban areas (....Banjul and the Kombos.)
You know why : Better schools, Better communication/Transport facilities,
Better job opportunity -Industries, Departments and Hotels and tourism and
hospitals/clinics, cinemas, Night clubs, Supermarkets, airport and seaport

------------------------------

Date: 29 Jul 97 15:02:06 EDT
From: "Dr. S. G. Kamara" <73244.2701@CompuServe.COM>
To: GAMBIA-L <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Life Insurance
Message-ID: <970729190206_73244.2701_FHO35-1@CompuServe.COM>


Hello All,

Per Mr. Tony Loum's request in response to Habib, I am presenting a
brief account of the insurance coverage which the Organization of
African Associations (OAA) successfully negotiated here in Seattle.
The OAA is an umbrella organization that comprises African and
African-American associations in Washington State.

There have been some traumatic deaths of a few Africans during the
last few years. Generating adequate funds to complete the demanding
funeral arrangements and to ship the body were extremely difficult
challenges. The process usually involves somewhere around $7,000
-- outside the reach of most uninsured individuals.

Over the last year and a half, we talked to many insurance companies
and finally negotiated a concrete policy with one on the following
simple terms:

1. A group policy for which every subscribing individual of any
OAA member association will be eligible.

2. A simple, affordable, felxible, premium level.

3. Flexible payment schedule: monthly, quarterly, or annual.

4. A group rate based on the group's demographic averages
(age, gender).

Based on these, the major benefit of the policy we negotiated was
as follows:

For a $10,000 life insurance policy, a member pays only $4.00 (four
dollars) per month, or $48.00 (forty-eight dollars) a year. This
translates to 40 cents per thousand dollars of benefit per month.

Minor additional benefits to all members and their families include
additional cash benefits for accidental death and dismemberment
(AD&D), vision and prescription discounts, etc.

The four key advantages of this insurance are:

1. There is no screening for anything. Members qualify upon
subscription.

2. Privacy: Individual/private demographic information of
member subscribers are not released to the Insurance
company.

3. If a subscribing member of our community dies, the insurance
company immediately writes the check for the amount of
benefits to the beneficiary with no questions asked, as long as
they are identified by OAA.

Needless to say how happy and relieved we are to have this insurance
in place.

We intend to work with the company to extend the policy to other
states in the U.S., as well as to different countries in Africa.

If Africans in other locations are interested in pursuing this, DO
NOT SEND E-MAIL, but please WRITE to me at the Organization
of African Associations, P.O. Box 22413, Seattle, WA. 98122, USA.
PLEASE DO NOT SEND PRIVATE E-MAIL REGARDING THIS!!!l

Even though I have been peeping for a while, I have been following
and enjoying the discussions on Gambia-l. Keep the lively debates
up.

Back to peeper's paradise.

Regards,

S. G. Kamara.


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 22:21:10 +-300
From: BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <01BC9C6D.D4B2FEC0@dilh.qatar.net.qa>
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Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="---- =_NextPart_000_01BC9C6D.D4B2FEC0"


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Susan!
Well,as you yourself have rightly pointed out,heading towards the road =
of choosing one language as the official Gambian Language would be =
heading towards a dead-end street of course! Because the hard fact =
remains that Gambia is still a highly rural and tribalized country,and =
none of the language groupings would even want to discuss such a =
'dangerous' proposition,since language,for most of them,is not just a =
language but also an ethnic group,identity and a view of life,which =
would, in their view, be severely threatened when that(language) of the =
other group is chosen.So choosing one language is out of the question!

As for Modou's question whether it is possible to literally manufacture =
a new language out of the ones that we now have(a hybridized =
language);that is of course technically possible,but only =
technically,since every language's survival depends first and foremost =
on a speech community(people who speak it),and the chances are that such =
a language would be either too stagnant,like the example given by =
Susan,Esperanto, or dead by the time it can boast of sufficient number =
of speakers that master it and love it well enough to bring up their =
children in it.Just imagine,Esperanto is now more than ninety years old =
and the total number of people who have mastered it reasonably well =
worldwide is still hovering between ninety to hundred thousand! So,this =
also,I think,is not feasable in Gambia's case.

So,maybe,for starters,the best thing would be to make it obligatory for =
every school child to learn reading and writing skills of his/her mother =
tongue at the primary level.And from the middle level to the end of =
high school, Mandinka and Wollof would be obligatory subjects for the =
non-Madinkas and non-wollofs in addition to their mother tongues,so that =
both the Wollof and the Mandinka students would have to (must) choose =
one other language in addition to Wollof and Mandinka.That way,every =
Gambian school child will have mastered two languages by the time she =
completes high school,not counting English and her mother tongue.And the =
official languges of debate in the National Assembly would be =
English,Wollof and Mandinka,so that a member of parliament would be =
absolutely free to use any of or all of them mixed together if he =
chooses.

Regards Bassss! =20


=09

----------
From: Susan Renee Hayes[SMTP:srhayes@indiana.edu]
Sent: 28 =D1=CC=C8, 1997 20:12
To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language


Greetings,

Here are some of my first thoughts on the creation of a Gambian national =

language. I'm not good at supporting these opinions with reserach=20
perhaps Mr. Baldeh can fill in specifics). First of all, it would never =

work. Even if we were to narrow down the languages of the Gambia to the =

three most widely spoken languages, i.e. Wolof, Mandinka and Fula, who=20
would be able to agree on which word from which language would be used? =

There would be no way to decide which is the "simplest" since that woudl =

be relative. Fula and Wolof are closely realted but those who have =
heard=20
both will know they sounds completely different and although the=20
processes used in Fula to make plurals was the same in Wolof, Wolof no=20
longer uses those same prcesses to the same degree as Fula. For =
example,=20
in Fula 'man' =3D gorko while 'men' =3D worbe. The last two letters in =
each=20
word is actually a suffix that denotes singular or plural (and it get a=20
lot more complicated from there). Mandinka is fairly distantly related=20
to Wolof and Fula. Some argue tat the Mande languages were the first to =

branch off from the super-family called Niger-Congo (or =
Congo-Kordofanian).

I could suggest using Mandinka as the national language since it is the=20
most commonly heard langauge all over the Gambia (I'm sure some=20
Wolof-speakers are shaking their heads). You can use Mandinak all over=20
the country but Fula isn't as common in the urban areas and Wolof is =
less=20
common upcountry. Mandinka is also very simialr to Bambara and therefor =

we could also communicate easily with Malians. However, Wolof is also=20
widely spoken especially on the North Bank and it is also widely used in =

Senegal. Consider that Fula is the language with the widest =
geographical=20
distribution over all of Africa (not counting non-African languages). =20
There are Fula-speakers from Mauritania to Sudan to Cameroon and all=20
countries in between ( its more widely spoken geographically than Hausa=20
or Swahili). So no how would we choose.

Artificial means of constructiong or even controlling lnaguage and=20
language change do not work. Examples include the French Academy's=20
attempt to outlaw English words in French advertising. People will use=20
the words that work and language change is as natural and constant as =
any=20
other biological process you can think of. Efforts to establish a=20
simplified European language "Esperanto" have been interesting but=20
haven't produced any real Esperanto speakers.

And even if you could come up with a single Gambian language, Gambian=20
would not be able to use it outside and would still learn English or=20
French to commmunicate. Perhaps this would be like the currency in the=20
Gambian. It is one Gambain currency but its only useful in the Gambia=20
and I know most people would prefer a dollar to a dalasi.

One last point to this rambling. Could you convimce any one ethnic =
group=20
to give up their own language for another? I know my husband preferred=20
only to speak Fula and when he was younger he would only respond in Fula =

although he understood others. He only relented and spoke Mandinka with =

me because that was the only language I could speak. I know at least=20
once I greeted a Gambian person in a government office in Banjul in=20
Mandinak and they were thoroughly insulted and respoded in English with =
a=20
very unhappy face so there are many more issues concerning prestige and=20
social status the I think Mr Baldeh can address.

Sorry it was so long... I guess I've been saving up. They won't all be=20
like this. =20

Susan

PS We'd like to travel to Gambia in December... where are the cheapest=20
airline tickets?



------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 16:10:30 -0500 (CDT)
From: umjawara@cc.UManitoba.CA
To: Gambia-l <Gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: enquire (fwd)
Message-ID: <Pine.SOL.3.91.970729160639.24770A-100000@pollux.cc.umanitoba.ca>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Hello list managers,
could somebody please subscribe this brother.
Alieu Jawara.

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Sun, 27 Jul 1997 20:01:50 PDT
From: Omar Gassama <kassama@hotmail.com>
To: umjawara@cc.UManitoba.CA
Cc: adibba@online.no
Subject: enquire

Dear Brothers,
I am very glad to send you this e-mail.My name is Omar
Gassama,from Brikama Town,I am a gambian student in malaysia,I have seen
the e-mail add ..of Gambia-L, then, I emijetly sent a letter througth it
but it couldn't entered,they said in the reply wrong add..this the add
... I used <listproc@u.washington.edu>.I just want you to help the
correct e-mail of this programme if you know it.Also ,the same thing for
subscribtion in Daily Observer through Internet.By the way,I got all
your e-mail add..from your homepage(s)
I think that you will help for this matter.this my
E-mail<kassama@hotmail.com>.

ALABARAKA BAKE BAKE

WAS SALAAM
gassama


______________________________________________________
Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com


------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 18:30:19 -0500 (EST)
From: Susan Renee Hayes <srhayes@indiana.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <Pine.HPP.3.91.970729182024.9740A-100000@juliet.ucs.indiana.edu>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Bassss,

I think your plan of Wolof and Mandinak being national languages along
with English are good. I also agree that all children should start
school in their mother tongue and add other languages as they continue in
school. There is research that supports the idea that kids will learn
subjects like math and scinece best if they can learn basic concepts in
their own language and then transfer that knowledge into English or
French or any other language. I think it used to be common for kids to
start in a langauge other than their mother tongue and they would have
trouble because they would be trying to learn a different language and a
new subject. I think in many places in Africa children are being taught
reading and writing in their first language as you suggested. Do you or
does anyone know what the situation is about this in Gambia ( it could be
a possible dissertation topic for me). I assume most educators would
agree that using the first language early-on is (obviously) the best
answer but I would also believe that parents of primary school children
would prefer to see their kids learning English from the start.
Especially in the rural areas I think people don't think of their native
langauges as having any prestige in terms of education. I know when I
suggested learning to read and write in Fula or Mandinak as a step to
learning to read and write English, people looked at me like I was crazy
and even secondary school kids who could read English well were perplexed
when I gave them a text in their native language to read.... they had
trouble even sounding out the words (they were phonetically written).
And they were'nt even interested in reading their own langauge (in this
case Fula).

Out of curiosity, why not add Fula as a native language? I know the
Fula-speakers are a minority in the country but aren't (or weren't) there
Fulas in higher places in the government?

Susan

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 19:26:44 PDT
From: "Jainaba Diallo" <jai_diallo@hotmail.com>
To: srhayes@indiana.edu, gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: RE: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <199707300226.TAA15496@f52.hotmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain

>Bassss,
>
>I think your plan of Wolof and Mandinak being national languages >along
with English are good.

>Out of curiosity, why not add Fula as a native language? I know the
>Fula-speakers are a minority in the country but aren't (or weren't)
>there Fulas in higher places in the government?
>
>Susan

Susan,

What about adding Jola as well, since the president is one!!!!! I "like"
your reasoning above.

Jainaba.

______________________________________________________
Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 22:30:12 -0400 (EDT)
From: Ancha Bala-Gaye u <bala7500@mach1.wlu.ca>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: "GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
Message-ID: <Pine.3.89.9707292224.A11700-0100000@mach1.wlu.ca>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

My feelings exactly. Yes the past did happen and yes it did have an
effect, BUT, dwelling on it isn't taking us anywhere except backwards.
Lets find out what the problems are and deal with them head on.
Ancha.
On Mon, 28 Jul 1997, BEYAI wrote:

>
> I agree with Lamin entirely.
> " In search of the Beast" The beast for our economic predicament is
> within Africa itself. Pointing an accusing finger to others may not
> do us any good. We have been blaming the same people for
> years without any change in our position. Can't we think of
> alternative ways of solving our own problems? After all Africa is
> one of the several places affected by colonialism. While others were
> concentrating in re-building their countries, we were busy siphoning
> our limited resources from home to foreign countries.
>
> It seems to me that economic development is in favour of the newly
> independent African countries. If that is anything to go by then
> where lies the much blamed colonialism? Our problem is that self
interest is placed before
> that of the nation and unless that attitude is changed, we shall be
> blaming the colonial masters for generations to come.
>
> The time, effort and money we expend in discussing the subject could
> better be used elsewhere.
>
>
> Cheers,
> PLB
>
>
>

------------------------------

Date: Tue, 29 Jul 1997 23:16:36 -0400 (EDT)
From: Ancha Bala-Gaye u <bala7500@mach1.wlu.ca>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: "GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: SV: Fwd: Re: Fwd: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
Message-ID: <Pine.3.89.9707292333.A11700-0100000@mach1.wlu.ca>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII



On Tue, 29 Jul 1997, M. Njie wrote:
>
> If Africa's economic advancement is to have any remote
> chance of success, it has to go its own way. It may be hard
> and difficult, but operating within the present framework set
> by western countries will only increase our poverty. We may be
> criticised for protecting our interests, but that is what all
> the western powers do. The western powers did not achieve
> economic dominance through co-operation and fair competition with
> Africa, but through incessant brutalisation, rape, and plunder
> of the African continent, lasting centuries. How can we ever
> forget this? And how can anybody honestly say that this has ended?
>
> Regards,
> Momodou
>
hello Momodou,
In answer to your questions, I don't think we can forget about slavery
etc Actually, I hope someone is writing all this down for some of us who
don't know the real stories/ everything that happened and for subsequent
generations. These facts should be there inorder to remind us
constantly of what happened and why we should sacrifice and move towards
nation building instead of self material gains. which is what helped the
west in the first place to achieve what they did, with our own helping
them to destroy us. I think we should use the past as our motivating
force to help guide us into a brighter future.
Ancha.

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 08:42:04 +0200
From: "A.Dibba" <adibba@online.no>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Gambians are capble !!!
Message-ID: <01BC9CC4.75AC4B00@NTWK4_0_96-31>
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It is high time, the Gambian authority start considering using /considering/ appointing Gamibian citizen to perform duties of consul .

With Regards

Abdoulie Dibba

Ref.:


-


------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 08:45:30 +0200
From: Badara Joof <Joof@winhlp.no>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: RE: Gambians are capble !!!
Message-ID: <10ABECE967B3D01185FC0060B0514259077D19@obelix.winhlp.no>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain

Hie Mr. Dibba, I really support your idea. Gambians living abroad can
definitely perform such duties and even better.

With regards

Joof.

> -----Original Message-----
> From: adibba@online.no [SMTP:adibba@online.no]
> Sent: 30. juli 1997 08:42
> To: 'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'
> Subject: Gambians are capble !!!
>
> It is high time, the Gambian authority start considering using
> /considering/ appointing Gamibian citizen to perform duties of consul
> .
>
> With Regards
>
> Abdoulie Dibba
>
> Ref.:
> << Message: RE: Gambian dies in Danish jail (fwd) >>
>

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 09:09:22 +0200 (MET DST)
From: Olafiaklinikken Olafia <olafia@online.no>
To: <Gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE:BASIC EDUCATION TO EVERYONE....
Message-ID: <199707300709.JAA16172@online.no>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Hello Abdoulie

I do slemly agree with your article basic education for everyone... As you
stated the two most important things are education and electricity. Here I
do agree with you again but if these two are the most important things then
were doe HEALTH; CLEAN WATER and SANITATION comes. As the sayiing goes a
healthy mind is always found in a healthy body.=20

Concerning desentralising, I did mentioned that in one of my recent articles
to Asbj=F8rn Nordam. There must be willingness from the from the government=
to
give the local authorities (AREA and MUNICIPAL COUNCILS) a role to play on
governing factors and policy making for the advancement of our beloved
nation. It dosen=B4t simply meant that when government decentralise the the
Industries will follow as you stated. It should be on the government policys
on land allocation to Industries. There are many areas like Brikama, Soma
Mansakonko Bansang etc and not only the Kanifing area. This will also
contribute in decetralising the pollution and Toxic waste at Kanifing. I am
not justifying the Pollution and Toxic waste, but to make also a safer
environment for the duellers at Kanifing area.

I think it is very unfortunate to state that there is cheaper living and
labour cost in the rural areas than the urban areas and more profit for the
Industries. Industries are not specially different from monsters when it
comes to profit making or exploiting cheap labour. This have been wirnessed
by massive usage of child labour from Muti-Billin dollar companies, this was
not a wise idea. We should advocate for making people advance and
economically independent. It is not just to use all human resorts without
making them advance. his goes back to ASbj=F8rn Nordams question on what is=
a
decent salary. I believe and think we purchase the same commodoties. If
cheap labour happens to be a trend of decentralising as you suggested it
will create divisions in areas and a wide gap on the socio-economic trends
to purchase the same as the population at large.

What i thought wouldbe a bette "solution" is to set up an income tax
programme for those working in the rural areas in encouraging the movement
of competence to those areas

I hope one day we would stand and say this is our deeds for a better Gambia.

With rind regards


Omar S. Saho


------------------------------

Momodou



Denmark
10347 Posts

Posted - 19 Jun 2021 :  18:15:55  Show Profile Send Momodou a Private Message  Reply with Quote

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 10:34:46 +0200
From: =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
To: "'gambia'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: A national language
Message-ID: <9B236DF9AF96CF11A5C94044F32190311010B9@dkdifs02.dif.dk>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset="iso-8859-1"
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Thank you Susan for your comment. I have like you suggested that the
children should be taught in their mother-tongue at the beginning, and
then later supply with a second or more languages.
About constructing languages I don=B4t know if it=B4s possible. But ask =
our
Norwegion friends on the net. After being "ruled" from Copenhagen or
Stockholm for many years, and the people being "isolated" in the
different valleys, they develloped many norwegian
languages/tongues/dialects. But like in Denmark they also wanted to
create a national state after being Norway in modern time (1914) and
then they needed an official norwegian language (not danish-nor
swedish), so in some way they out of the language-heritage =
"constructed"
an official language - called "new norwegian". I=B4m not sure if I=B4m
totally right on that. If I a bit right it seems a succes (but =
difficult
for us in Denmark to speak and understand). Asbj=F8rn Nordam

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 06:18:36 -0400
From: Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
To: Gambia-L <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: [Fwd: ECONOMIST SEES AFRICANS STEERING AWAY FROM IDEOLOGY TOWARD SUCCESS]
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From: USIA
Newsgroups: zipnews.gov.world.regional.africa
Subject: ECONOMIST SEES AFRICANS STEERING AWAY FROM IDEOLOGY TOWARD SUCCESS
Date: 26 Jul 1997 09:44:52 -0700
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USIS Washington File

25 July 1997

ECONOMIST SEES AFRICANS STEERING AWAY FROM IDEOLOGY TOWARD SUCCESS

(Andrew Brimmer speaks on investment panel at AAAS) (630)
By Jim Fisher-Thompson
USIA Staff Correspondent

HARARE -- A primary reason that business is attracted to Africa now is
the decision by many of the continent's governments to steer away from
ideology and chart a course toward open-market reforms, an economist
told the fourth African-African American Summit July 23.

Noting the results of an economic study his firm made of 45 countries
in Africa, Andrew Brimmer, an economist who heads his own consulting
firm based in Washington, D.C., said, "It is amazing the extent to
which governments have consciously, after much debate, opted for
market economies rather than centrally planned economies."

Brimmer, who was named more than a year ago to head the Washington,
D.C., financial control board, established by Congress to monitor
fiscal and management reforms the city government has been slow in
adopting, made his comments at a panel discussion on investment
opportunities in Africa.

He was joined on the panel by William Simon, former U.S. secretary of
the treasury, and John Pepper, chief executive officer of Procter &
Gamble. All of the AAAS meetings, since they began in 1991, have had a
trade and investment component, with the aim of widening business
contacts between the United States and sub-Saharan Africa.

In past years, Brimmer and his firm have been commissioned to do a
number of economic studies of African nations, of which a common
thread, he said, is the general lackluster performance of nations with
an "ideological orientation towards central planning or state-owned
enterprises."

The African-American economist noted that "in sub-Saharan Africa, most
of the countries that came out of colonialism into freedom brought
with them an intellectual [elite] which leaned toward central planning
and public ownership."

In many ways South Africa is the economic powerhouse it is today, he
added, "because President Nelson Mandela made the fundamental decision
to lay aside the traditional ANC [African National Congress]
commitment to central planning and state ownership and opted for a
market economy."

One could say that "countries in Africa are catching up to what is
happening in other parts of the world," Brimmer remarked.

"It's amazing that India," he said, "which had its first five-year
plan in 1951 that was basically an adaptation of the Soviet system of
central planning, has opted in the last few years for a market
economy. In fact, the largest committed Marxist economy in the world,
China, is now tilting at the margins in favor of market openness."

Brimmer, who said he has visited China three times in the past, said,
"If you look at what is happening there, fundamentally they are all
opting for privatization and a market economy."

And frankly, "as regards Africa, I think the Ghana/South African
pattern" of economic progress "is going to win out in sub-Saharan
Africa." In Zimbabwe, "which is committed to open markets, it is only
a question of implementation," Brimmer stated.

The economist concluded, "I believe central planning has lost its
appeal for Africans, as it has for others around the world, and I
think it will continue to do so."

The U.S. State Department's 1997 "Investment Climate Reports of
Sub-Saharan Africa" categorizes Zimbabwe as "a stable, multiparty
democracy" as well as "an emerging market and major southern African
economy" that is "well-placed for regional business."

Noting that "businesses may now maintain foreign currency accounts and
repatriate 100 percent of after-tax profits," the report also points
out that "Zimbabwe's economy is still evolving from a statist, highly
controlled model to an open, market-based economic system. Despite
that, the report says, "Zimbabwe's balance-of-payments position is
strong."


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------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 06:20:26 -0400
From: Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
To: Gambia-L <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: [Fwd: WILSON BRING YEARS OF AFRICAN EXPERIENCE TO WHITE HOUSE POSITION]
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From: USIA
Newsgroups: zipnews.gov.world.regional.africa
Subject: WILSON BRING YEARS OF AFRICAN EXPERIENCE TO WHITE HOUSE POSITION
Date: 28 Jul 1997 10:03:46 -0700
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USIS Washington File

28 July 1997

WILSON BRING YEARS OF AFRICAN EXPERIENCE TO WHITE HOUSE POSITION

(NSC Africa chief speaks to USIA at Harare Summit) (510)
By Jim Fisher-Thompson
USIA Staff Correspondent

HARARE -- President Bill Clinton's new chief adviser on African
affairs is a diplomat who has served widely on the continent since
joining the foreign service in 1976.

Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson IV, who has been named special assistant
to the president and senior director for African affairs on the
National Security Council (NSC), told the U.S. Information Agency
(USIA) July 24: "I'm an Africanist by virtue of the school of hard
knocks. I've been in and around Africa since 1976."

Wilson, who was in Zimbabwe to attend the fourth biennial
African-African American Summit, succeeds former NSC Africa adviser
Susan Rice, who has been named to replace George Moose as assistant
secretary of state for African affairs, although she has yet to be
confirmed by the Senate.

Most recently, Wilson was political adviser to the commander in chief
of U.S. armed forces in Europe, who in addition to his European duties
is also responsible for U.S. military relations with the majority of
the nations on the continent of Africa, Wilson explained.

Before that, Wilson was U.S. ambassador to Gabon as well as Sao Tome
and Principe from 1992 to 1995, which he said was his seventh posting
on the continent.

Wilson attended the University of California at Santa Barbara, where
he earned a degree in history, and then worked as a carpenter for five
years before pursuing a diplomatic career.

Asked what he hoped to achieve in his new role at the White House,
Wilson said, "I would like to bring to President Clinton's African
foreign policy team the experiences that I've had in Africa and
support I have for the initiative that he's already taken and see it
become a reality."

President Clinton personally unveiled his new Africa trade initiative
at a White House ceremony June 17, where he called for "a new
partnership to promote economic growth and opportunity in Africa."

His plan involves using the American market to encourage African
growth and reform efforts while working to expand African access to
that market.

As part of his strategy, Clinton's initiative offers duty-free access
for an additional 1,800 products under the enhanced Generalized System
of Preferences (GSP) to the poorest African countries while offering
$650 million in an investment fund for nations undertaking necessary
economic policy reforms.

At the same time, U.S. efforts to push for meaningful debt relief for
African nations will also be stepped up.

Transportation Secretary Rodney Slater, who led a presidential
delegation to the summit that included Ambassador Wilson, told the
5,000 participants that "President Clinton's strategy, which was
presented at the recent Summit of the Eight in Denver, will help more
African nations achieve greater self-reliance and full integration
into the global economy. And it will attract U.S. investment to
Africa, spur economic growth in the United States, and facilitate
African access to the U.S. market."


--------------D5023F464AF7276C67FAE7D2--


------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 13:19:48 +0200
From: "A.Dibba" <adibba@online.no>
To: "Gambia-L (E-mail)" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: BASIC EDUCATION TO EVERYONE....
Message-ID: <01BC9CEB.42FF5A90@NTWK4_0_96-31>
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I do slemly agree with your article basic education for everyone... As =
you
stated the two most important things are education and electricity. Here =
I
do agree with you again but if these two are the most important things =
then
were doe HEALTH; CLEAN WATER and SANITATION comes. As the sayiing goes a
healthy mind is always found in a healthy body.=20
[A.Dibba] Education / Electrification plays major role in any area of =
our development
Think of any modern hospital / clinic / Medical laboratory without =
Electricity ! I doubt very few ,if at all any medical personnel are =
tempted to work in none electrified area. Water purification plans and =
Sterilization machines / instruments can't do without it. Cold storage =
to keep our food save from bacteria (or any other forms of contaminate) =
from contamination. Hey Mr. even some vital medicament would not be of =
any value without keeping them in very low temperature.=20
Basic education is the other major factor. I will leave with the =
challenge to explain to an illiterate what is bacteria, the importance =
of safety precaution in health care. Have you not seen where 10 or more =
people washes their hand in the same bowl /calabash before eating =
jointly or sick person sharing the same drinking pot with other healthy =
persons or imagine how easy would it be, even try to explain what is =
birth control and its importance to an illiterate .
Concerning desentralising, I did mentioned that in one of my recent =
articles
to Asbj=F8rn Nordam. There must be willingness from the from the =
government to
give the local authorities (AREA and MUNICIPAL COUNCILS) a role to play =
on
governing factors and policy making for the advancement of our beloved
nation.=20
[A.Dibba] I agreed with you...

I think it is very unfortunate to state that there is cheaper living and
labour cost in the rural areas than the urban areas and more profit for =
the
Industries. Industries are not specially different from monsters when =
it
comes to profit making or exploiting cheap labour .................. =20
[A.Dibba] Land/Housing and basic food is cheaper in the rural areas, =
industry owner would face lesser demand from their workers than =
otherwise.(....Of cause this should not give them any excuse to exploit =
rural area people.).=20

What i thought would be a bette "solution" is to set up an income tax
programme for those working in the rural areas in encouraging the =
movement
of competence to those areas
[A.Dibba] This a very good example of discouraging rural to urban =
migration, but I would rather pay more income tax ,have a better =
education for my children ,have an electricity and all the good things =
in life it brings than stay in place without this two things.



With Regards

Abdoulie Dibba
=00=00

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 13:46:37 +0200
From: =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
To: "'gambia'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Nation building - comments on fair trade
Message-ID: <9B236DF9AF96CF11A5C94044F32190311010BA@dkdifs02.dif.dk>
Mime-Version: 1.0
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charset="iso-8859-1"
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I think I said it some weeks ago. There are some kind of "new winds
blowing". There are politicians, who believe that the only way to help
the African continent is to open markets for fair trade. I want to
believe in them, even I can never hide my fear that this can be an even
smarter way of new-colonialism. What do they mean, when they are saying
that open markets and financial aid/support will have to go to =
countries
based on democracy or "nations undertaking necessary economic policy
reforms"
But those of you, who study economics and politics may be able to see
if it=B4s a way up or a smart trap. Comments please, because it=B4s
importent for us ,who vote in the West, that we bring the right people
into powers here, support the right economical ideas. It could be an
important and direct way of helping - I think.=20
Asbj=F8rn Nordam

Learn from history and look ahead.=20
A nation, a people must never forgets its history, but if we are lost =
in
missed chances or opportunities because of... , instead of learning =
from
it and then go ahead, then we can all find something in the past, which
was the reason why we today ... I`m not saying this to defend the
crimes on humanity all ower, there is no excuse for that. In danish
history we for only 300 years ago was no nation or land, we were
oppressed, a greatest part of the land (todays Denmark) owned by
foreigners, (that is why we will fight to the end against =
EU-legislation
saying that foreigners can buy danish land or estates), 190 years ago
the english took (stole) our whole fleet, which made it impossible to
continue the flourish world-wide trade in which we did threathen the
english, (the negative aspect) , but also ended our colonial days in
Ghana and Caribien (the positive aspect). It took 150 years to =
establish
the same fleet (which now because of bad leadership in a capitalistic
competition has disappeared again). Because the germans got the whole
productive industry smashed under the second world war, and England
(where the industrialisation started in Europe) didn=B4t, the germans =
has
today a modern productive industry, and England is undergoing that
renewal. ( positive or negative aspect of that war ?)

So I do hope you will all look ahead. I think that your continent has
great oppertunities, the future is in your hands.
Asbj=F8rn Nordam

You wrote: "The western powers did not achieve economic =
dominance
through co-operation and fair competition with Africa, but
through incessant brutalisation, rape, and plunder of the
African continent, lasting centuries. How can we ever forget
this? And how can anybody honestly say that this has ended?
Regards,
Momodou"

Latir D-T braught the news: "President Clinton personally unveiled his
new Africa trade initiative at a White House ceremony June 17, where he
called for "a new partnership to promote economic growth and =
opportunity
in Africa."

His plan involves using the American market to encourage African
growth and reform efforts while working to expand African access to
that market.

As part of his strategy, Clinton's initiative offers duty-free access
for an additional 1,800 products under the enhanced Generalized System
of Preferences (GSP) to the poorest African countries while offering
$650 million in an investment fund for nations undertaking necessary
economic policy reforms.

At the same time, U.S. efforts to push for meaningful debt relief for
African nations will also be stepped up.

Transportation Secretary Rodney Slater, who led a presidential
delegation to the summit that included Ambassador Wilson, told the
5,000 participants that "President Clinton's strategy, which was
presented at the recent Summit of the Eight in Denver, will help more
African nations achieve greater self-reliance and full integration
into the global economy. And it will attract U.S. investment to
Africa, spur economic growth in the United States, and facilitate
African access to the U.S. market."



------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 17:38:03 +0200 (MET DST)
From: Olafiaklinikken Olafia <olafia@online.no>
To: <Gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: BASIC EDUCATION TO EVERYONE...
Message-ID: <199707301538.RAA20952@online.no>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Hello my dear friend Abdoulie Dibba

I Think we writing in the same language but not the same context. I beleive
you misunderstood the whole of my article. We can always agree to disagree
hence our common goals is the pride and development of our mother land.

I wrote were does Health comes in the manner of your reply i am happy that
you elaborated on health. I don=B4t know when you join the BANTABA but i was
the first to start the discussion on education and health and Musa Sowe=B4s
food for thought which triggered the whole subject. I have writen numerous
articles on health issue in the gambia, from bacteria, virus, parasite and
other communicable diseases aand other symptoms. My last article was on the
major of child and parenatal deaths in the gambia. Whenever i am in The
Gambia i visit clinics, health centres and hospital from banjul to Basse in
the kombos every were. Which i got documentation from the authorities and
the people. I have written a lot on the net on health issue in the Gambia
almost 90 % of all i wrote is on health issues and education.

You wrote in your first article:" To make my point a bit clearer:
It is a clear and well known fact that people are migrating from rural to
urban areas (....Banjul and the Kombos.)....Can the Kombos and Banjul
support all this people and give them decent life ?."

I wrote: "What i thought would be a bette "solution" is to set up an income=
tax
programme for those working in the rural areas in encouraging the movement
of competence to those areas". If i do understood your text it seems you are
worried for the migration fromt he rural to the urban area.That is my reason
of making some thing for those in the rural area.

In your reply to my above quoted line.You wrote: "This a very good example
of discouraging rural to urban migration, but I would rather pay more income
tax have a better education for my children ,have an electricity and all the
good things in life it brings than stay in place without this two things."

I thought you were very concerned about decentralising people doing thing
where they happened tobe. I cannot discourage rural to urban migration. As i
understood from youe e-mail address you are a residen of Norway. In Norway
it is in the law that people working in the rural area pay lesser tax, more
child support, lower study loan rents. This is not only Norway but the
Nordic countries and Europe.

In the Gambia thre is no healthcentre, clinic without elctricity or
generator that i know not a single one without.

Folks i am travelling today and will be back first the 19. august.


With kind regards



Omar S. Saho




------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 16:56:03 +0100 (BST)
From: O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <Pine.SOL.3.91.970730155245.10572A-100000@merlin.cen.brad.ac.uk>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII


MOMODOU, SUSAN ET AL.,

I have just read your e-mail and I wolud like to make the following comments:

First of all there is a difference between a national language and an
official language. So if are asking whether we can have one of our
national languages as an official language, the answer is very clear. But
I will hold that answer till you clarify your concerns.

Secondo, but if your question retains the meaning it has as structured,
then here is my observation. However I do not intend to be a 'know-all':
Momodou, why do we need one national language among the ones we have?
Language is a source of life, it is a sign of existence; it is the VERB.
Thus it is not the number which matters but the understanding of why a
language. Coventionally african languages have been termed as dialects.
This has been terribly proved to be false. Thus thiose who ascribe
african problems to the DIVERSITYT or MUL:TIPLICITY of their languages
are criminals are liable to court cases!
Momodou, Can you name any society in this world today which is
UNILINGUAL, having at the back of your mind the few meanings given to
language above? I may be tempted to tell you that all societies are
destined to MUTILINGISM. This is the available route to the
REUNIFICATION of the world.
AQnd in the civilisation of nations or civilisation universelle one is or
called to be a multilinguist. Today do yoou prefer to be a man who
speaks only mandinka or english or would you rather be familiar with
arabic, french, pulaar etc. ASK Susan why did she focused on an african
language instead of dwelling on enlish language which has so many issues
illogic! If we speak different languages, if we understand different
languages we have a great tendency to be human beings
Light can to this world through the VERB and because there is light we
can see each other , we can reach other and we can treat each other as
des semblables! MOMODOU there is no harm in having different national
languages in our beloved country. What we need to tell each other is
that in diversity we stand unique. IF we cannot understand each other
we can never accomodate each other. And the different languages we have
is enable us to apprecdiate each other. Do not listen to those who
wopuld like see terror in your midst to tell you many languages cause
problems. there are detracteurs. They do not understand why we have the
faculty to speak and understand. How many languages are spoken in
America today? Why so many languages studied in various Institutions?
If multilinguism is not man's destiny there would not have been any
institution to encourage the study of languages because studying
languages means encouraging their bein spoken.
However some people may ask me why did America for instance embark on the
melting pot policy? I am only interested on the linguistic aspect of it
and nothing else. Maybe I can leave Susan to lecture this subject matter.
Momodou, God speaks many languages. We are sign of GOD and thus we are
destined to have multilinguism. It is sign of ourreturning to the wishes
of the CREATOR. In the GAmbia, like in any nation in the world today, we
are better when we speak many languages.
Linguistically we can have one language but can and why are two different
things. There is no place for unilinguism in the world today , tomorrow
and after!
I really respect your concerns and this indicates that there are people
who are really interested in seeing a peaceful cohabitation. The people
who stress wollof here, mandika there or pulaar downthere or english
outther they do not understand why those languages exist and the raison
d'etre of their own existence. Language is a product of GOD and we
shopuld not misuse it for our own selfish interests.
Momodou, can you tell me who owns english, wollof chinese. Nobody owns
any language. It belongs to anybody who speaks it. The prove is nobody
tells you this language I own it so don't speak it. IT is not like your
desktop which you can close in your room and refuse anybody to use it.
Mo I have not spoken linguistict yet but I choose to focus on the
rationale of our having languages; the linguistic aspect is just
analytical which even a non-gambian can give his or her own feelings. But
beware of so called african linguists who insist that many languages are
sign of problems. I do not share this view. In the event that you want
me to theorise on how to improvise one language for the Gambia I will do
so but that will just be a joke for we should not even talk about it as
it has no relevance. This demonstration will be madse by indicating the
simplest of thes languages through their morphosyntaxe which Susan has
started to highlight but needs to refer to Jallow et al 1992.






On Mon, 28 Jul 1997 momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk wrote:

> I have been thinking about a question which I always wanted to to ask
> and perhaps Mr. Baldeh, Susan or another linguist on the list could
> elaborate.
>
> Is it not possible for The Gambian linguists to create a new language
> from the existing ones which could become our national language in
> twenty to thirty years time?
> The new language could be a mixture of the most simple words from
> each of the present languages.
>
> Any comments?
>
> Momodou Camara
>

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 22:20:09 +-300
From: BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <01BC9D36.F41D7FA0@kolls567>
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Susan!
I would like you to consider my reasons for proposing Mandinka and =
Wollof as the Official national languages and why I leave out the rest.

The choice of English is pretty obvious,so we will not talk about =
that.As for Mandinka, the sheer numerical preponderance of the mandinkas =
in the Gambia,plus the fact that very many other Gambians have mastered =
their language either as a result of intermarriage,assimilation or their =
geographical proximity to mandinka ethnic territories automatically =
makes it a must nominee for any future Gambian National Language.


As for my choice of Wollof,that is a little bit tricky.In terms of =
numbers,native Wollofs are a minority in the Gambia,but their language =
is not a minority language for the simple reason that the overwhelming =
majority of the Gambian elites,regardless of their ethnic background,not =
only master it but tend to communicate with each other in it.That is =
especially true in the major urban centres.And we know from =
socio-linguistics that the preferred language of the rich and the =
powerful in any given society becomes automatically a language of =
prestige for much of that society.And if we add the fact that this same =
language is the national language of our big brother and next door =
neighbour,Senegal then its position becomes even more strenghtened.

In short,this is why I think these two languages qualify,or at least are =
strong candidates for the position of national Languages in a way the =
others are not,and that includes my own,the Sarrahuleh =
Language.So,unless you can put forward another reason different from the =
one below,maybe both my language(Sarrahuleh) and yours(Fulla) should =
withdraw their candidature for the sake of the bigger national interest!

Regards Basssss!
--------
From: Susan Renee Hayes[SMTP:srhayes@indiana.edu]
Sent: 29 =D1=CC=C8, 1997 21:30
To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
Subject: RE: A Gambian National Language

Bassss,


Out of curiosity, why not add Fula as a native language? I know the=20
Fula-speakers are a minority in the country but aren't (or weren't) =
there=20
Fulas in higher places in the government?

Susan





------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 22:49:37 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <19970730215245.AAC16994@LOCALNAME>

On 30 Jul 97 at 16:56, O BALDEH wrote:
> First of all there is a difference between a national language and
> an official language. So if are asking whether we can have one of
> our national languages as an official language, the answer is very
> clear. But I will hold that answer till you clarify your concerns.

Mr. Baldeh, I am not asking wether to have one of our various local
languages as the official language. I am asking about a completely
new language composed of the already existing languages. I am not a
linguist but just someone curious about this possibility. According
to what I understand from your lecture and that of Susan, I can see
that this is very complicated and is out of question. I have never
even heard of the new European language mentioned by Susan and Bass
called "Esperanto" though I live in Europe.

However, a very good example of making it obligatory for
every Gambian school child to learn reading and writing skills of
his/her mother tongue at the primary level has been mentioned in the
discussion which I find very interesting.
I believe that at the end of secondary school, every child should be
able to speak two other Gambian languages apart from his/her mother
tongue.
There must be enough teaching materials on the Gambian languages
especially with the experience we have with the peace corps who
speak our local languages after short intensive courses.

I am still eager to learn more about this subject if any one have
more input.

Thanks Bass, Susan and Omar.

Momodou Camara
*******************************************************
http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara

**"Start by doing what's necessary, then what's
possible and suddenly you are doing the impossible"***

------------------------------

Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 18:01:37 -0400
From: Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
To: Gambia-L <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: fwd: Econews: Africa-Currency
Message-ID: <33DFB9C1.43073FB0@earthlink.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Econews: Africa-Currency

DAKAR, Senegal (PANA, 07/29/97) - Liberian President-elect Charles
Taylor has said he will restore use of the United States dollar in the
West African country to bring sanity to the finance sector of his
war-ravaged economy.
"Liberty" and "JJ", the two versions of the Liberian dollar created
during the seven-year war, have merged and even appreciated soon after
Taylor was declared winner of the July 19 elections.
Reports reaching PANA from Monrovia Sunday said the local currency
now exchanged at 30 to one U.S. dollar from 45 to the greenback
previously.
The U.S. dollar was a legal tender in Liberia before it was changed
in 1985 by late President Samuel Doe.
Taylor says he will buy up some 615 million Liberian dollars now in
circulation in the country with American dollars.
Meanwhile, the CFA franc continued to depreciate Tuesday, exchanging
at the nominal rate of 619.4 to the U.S. dollar, down from 609 to the
greenback on same day last week.
In Dakar on Tuesday, the currency exchanged at 605 (buying) and 635
(selling) for one dollar. On Tuesday last week, the rates were 601
(buying) and 617 (selling) for one U.S. dollar.
The Following were the indicative exchange rates of African
currencies against the U.S. dollar Tuesday:
Country Currency Current Rate (Previous Rate)

Algeria dinar 57.70 (58.80)
Angola read. kwanza ..... (196,916.00)
Botswana pula 3.641 (3.60)
Burundi franc 333.50 (285.71)
Cape Verde escudo 75.00 (88.30)
CFA zone cfa franc 619.4 (609.24)
Comoros franc 430.40 (385.50)
Congo (Kinshasa) new zaire 111,959.00 (110,000.00)
Djibouti franc 172.50
Egypt pound 3.90 (3.38)
Ethiopia birr 6.75 (6.82)
Gambia dalasi 10.00 (9.57)
Ghana cedi 2,124.6 (2,025.50)
Guinea franc 1,038.78 (1,038.84)
Kenya shilling 57.92 (58.14)
Lesotho maloti 4.46 (4.69)
Liberia dollar 82.00 (50.00)
Libya dinar 0.30 (0.30)
Madagascar franc 4,400.00 (1,841.90)
Malawi kwacha 17.114 (15.30)
Mauritania ouguiya 143.00 (130.00)
Mauritius rupee 20.30 (20.00)
Morocco dirham 9.40 (9.10)
Mozambique metical 11,473.00 (11,409.00)
Namibia dollar 4.46 (3.30)
Nigeria naira 85.00 (82.00)
Rwanda franc 313.89 (360.00)
Sao Tome & Principe dobra 239.00
Seychelles rupee 5.00
Sierra Leone leone 820.00 (700.00)
Somalia shilling 2,620.00
South Africa rand 4.50 (4.45)
Sudan pound 1,454.00 (1,445.00)
Swaziland lilangeni 4.573 (4.50)
Tanzania shilling 628.931 (630.00)
Tunisia dinar 1.14 (0.90)
Uganda shilling 1,116.50 (1,020.00)
Zambia kwacha 1,342 (1,299.00)
Zimbabwe dollar 11.610 (11.40)
European Union ECU 1.27 (1.26)
IMF/World Bank SDR 1.46 (1.41)
------------------------------------------------------------
CFA: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad,
Congo (Brazzaville), Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon,
Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo.
-------------------------------------------------------------
-0-
Copyright 1997

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Jul 1997 09:21:44 -0400 (EDT)
From: "Malanding S. Jaiteh" <msjaiteh@mtu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Job in Africa (fwd)
Message-ID: <199707311321.JAA06046@oak.ffr.mtu.edu>
Content-Type: text

Forwarded message:
> From owner-forgrad-l-outgoing@mtu.edu Wed Jul 30 11:45:22 1997
> X-Received: MTU Resend v1.1 for forgrad-l
> X-Authentication-Warning: campus1.mtu.edu: Host hemlock.ffr.mtu.edu [141.219.149.237] claimed to be hemlock
> Message-Id: <199707301545.LAA12859@hemlock>
> X-Sender: gdmroz@141.219.149.237
> X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Version 2.0.3
> Mime-Version: 1.0
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
> Date: Wed, 30 Jul 1997 11:45:18 -0400
> To: forgrad-l@mtu.edu
> From: gdmroz@mtu.edu (Glenn D. Mroz)
> Subject: Job in Africa
> Cc: bdorr@mtu.edu
> Precedence: list
>
> CO-ORDINATOR
>
> COMMUNITY FOREST AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION PROJECT (CFWCP)
>
> ETHIOPIA
>
> Applications are invited for the post of Project
> Co-ordinator of the Community Forest and Wildlife Conservation
> Project in Ethiopia
>
> THE PROJECT
>
> This major FARM initiative, now in its fourth year, and supported by
> the EU, Netherlands Government, SIDA and other international donors,
> is introducing to Ethiopia a community approach to forestry and
> wildlife conservation.
>
> It works with four communities in remnant forest areas and in two
> state forests. It is also involved in a pilot eco-tourism venture.
>
> THE POSITION
>
> Manage project according to the project document
> Addis Ababa based but majority of time in the field
> Responsible for a team of 28 professional and other project staff
> 2 - year contract initially Over the contract period the job
> will become increasingly advisory as components
> of the CFWCP become independent FARM projects
> Liaise with local donors
>
> QUALIFICATIONS/EXPERIENCE
>
> At least an MSc in forestry, anthropology or natural resource
> management Minimum 5 years' experience in community forestry
> work, including Joint Forestry
> Management (JFM)
> Minimum 5 years' experience in project management in NGO sector
> Experience of Ethiopia/Eastern Africa highly desirable
>
> Only those who meet the above requirements need apply. Only
> short-listed applications acknowledged. Closing date 13 August 1997.
> Salary c. stlg25 -30,000
>
> Apply in writing with c.v. to:
> David Campbell
> Executive Director
> FARM-Africa
> 9/10 Southampton Place
> London WC1A 2EA
> email: farmafricauk@gn.apc.org
>
>
>


------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Jul 1997 14:57:08 +0100 (BST)
From: "M. Njie" <mn015@students.stir.ac.uk>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <Pine.HPP.3.91.970731122533.15702A-100000@whale.students.stir.ac.uk>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Momodou's question whether Gambian linquists can create a new
language from the existing ones which could become our national
language in 20-30 years' time, is not difficult to answer. The
answer is YES, they can. But such an important national issue
cannot be left to linguists alone. I am not sure whether a
mixture of the most simple words will be enough, but I get
your point the new language being inclusive of all the other
languages.

How language originated is still in dispute, with some
maintaining that it is a gift from God, while others say it
was invented by human beings. The Greeks believed that an
ancient 'legislator' gave the true names to all things. I am
not sure from Momodou's question, the domains in which the new
language is to be used, but I would imagine that it would of
higher status than the other languages. In which case, it
would be used in domains such as Family, Technical, Administration,
Education and Rural life.

Language and cultural transmission are to some two sides of
the same coin. Suffice to say that the new language should
be accepted by society at large 'as suitable for its assigned
role and of such functional importance as to be worth the
effort of acquiring...it has an important bearing on
motivation.'

One of the problems with a national language in Africa,
like in Kenya, is that employers rarely include Kiswahili in
their list of qualifications for jobs. There may also be the
case that certain wealthy people would prefer to send their
kids abroad for education.

Out of 53 African states, only about nine have a common
national language. So it is a rather tricky subject. And in
some countries that now have a national language,there are hist.reasons for
it. Kiswahili, for example, was, to put it crudely, the mother
tongue of only about ten percent of the population. But it
has now acquired an almost neutral status, not least because
of the massive support given to its development by the Germans
and the willingness of the people to accept it. Momodou did
not specifically ask this question, but I just wanted to put the
national language issue in some context. Other members(Susan,
Bass, Omar and Jainaba) have voiced their support for the
selection of one of our national languages as THE national
language, and I will have something to say about this by the
middle of next week.

I would however like to comment, if I may, about certain
issues already raised by Omar. I agree with him that in the
world, bilingualism is the norm, and monolingualism the
exception. However, if a monolingual is someone who speaks only
one language, there are many to be found in Britain, for
example. This is probably because many of them do not see the
need to learn another language, and they are many a time
embarrassed by this. I may not get Omar's proper meaning of
monolingualism. In which case, I am sorry. All the Africans
that I know are at least bilingual, but our
bilingualism/multilingualism is hardly recognised. For many, this
means being able to speak only certain selected languages.

Also, Omar appears to be saying that our indigenous
languages are important to us, and at the same arguing that
language is culture-neutral. Can he throw more light on this?
I just want to ask two questions that sociolinguists sometimes ask.
1)Does learning another language entail learning another culture?
2)Does our own language DETERMINE our perception of the world?
In trying to answer these questions, take into account, where
the LEARNER travels and where the LANGUAGE travels.

I agree with Omar that there is no evidence that one
language is more ' primitive' than another. Suffice to say that
all languages have grammar, phonology, syntax and lexicon. I
wll elaborate next week, if there is any need for it, on the
position of the 'univeralists' and the 'relativists' regarding
the Principle of Linguistic Equality.

If anyone wants to raise certain issues with me on this
subject, publicly or privately, it would be much appreciated. I
wish everyone a super weekend.

Momodou

PS I am sorry if I have caused distress to certain people
regarding the length of the mail. That is why I raised the
possibility of a private discussion.




------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Jul 1997 16:01:51 +0100 (BST)
From: O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
To: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <Pine.SOL.3.91.970731140811.2363A-100000@merlin.cen.brad.ac.uk>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Momodou, I wrote about four paragraghes on this issue as a reply. What I
have seen is just the first few lines. I must tell you that I had tried
two occassions but had problems with the PC and was determined to put in
some inputs. Here is another trial: Momodou, as a linguist I have to ask
you why the need to have an artificial language from the languages we
have? There is a difference between CAN and NEED paRTICURLARLY WHEN YOU
HAVE puta quotation after your message which I need to respect. Since you
are interested in having a new language I must first of tell you it from a
linguistic point of view it IS POSSIBLE; but the question is is desirable.
Here is the the way we can do it. But unlike SUSAN I will not propose any
language among the available languages in the Gambia because a linguist
will not venture in this form of ignorance. WHY? This is because MOMODOU
language is a source of life, it is the VERB and thus the SIGN of GOD. IT
is the light to ensure that human beings live peacefully and decently in
this world and may be in the next world. Thereis no lnaguage in this world
which is beter than another. IF there was any one better would have GOD
given us these various INSTRUMENTS to access oneanother to understand
oneanother to accomodate oneanother and thus take heed HIS wishes?
MOmodou, those people who advocate one language against another are
criminals are should be brought before a court of law MO, can you name me
any society in this world today where you have unilinguism? I can assure
there is none. This world is destined to multilinguism. For yesterday many
have claimed that African languages are dialects. But today there are so
many institutions to study languages. WHY is this so; for studying a
language is encouraging it to be spoken! ASk Susan why is she interested
in learning pulaar or why are Peacecorps learning our national languages.
Or in another words what is a Peacecorp?
If you have the chance please listen to
one of Malians singer who said something about African multilinguism.
MOMODOU in the civilisation of Nationsor civilisation universelle one
would be called upon to be multilinguist. God is multilinguist so it is
desirable for us to be multilinguist! Mo, how can we understand each
other if we don't understand our semblables language and how can we talk
about peace,
development and prosperity ifwe say english is better than french or
wollof is better than pulaar or mandinka or ...... Mo those people who
insist that multilinguism is source of problems are liars are criminals
are stones and senseless creatures. They do not understand what is the
essence of a Language. Those who understand it exploit it to for their
selfgish interests. MOMODOU, can you tell me the scenarion of
colonialism? It was the BOOK in one hand the .... in the other.
Multilinguism is an instrument to REUNITE the world. So in
our diversity we stand unique! This is only possible if we understand the
essence of languages. Howvevr people may ask me why US embarked on the
melting pot strategy. However I am only interested in the linguistic
aspect of it. I will also live our American linguist to provide us with
this answer. Mo you asked whether Gambian linguists can improvise an
artificially language? My answer is yes and here is my theories:

For a linguist this is just like asking him to construct a dictionary,
which is the simplest of all activities of the field compared to studying
the brain particularly in intelligence artificielle. This is a branch in
linguistics interested in the Brain. With our knowledge in lexicography,
morphosyntaxe, semantics socilinguistics, phonology we can improvise an
artificial language and we can call it Mos. This is facilitated withour
understanding of the Gambian l;anguages in most of their features.
However, mo this different from teaching children the existing languages.
You are asking for a created language and this a process to fabricate
artificial languages. However mo, language is not artificial. So the
enterprise does not worth the trouble.
Morethan that there is no artificial language existing in the world.
Esperanto, ois one of the tentatives but it is a lullaby which european
mothers sing for their children.
Today African linguists accept the fact that language is just like a
tree. You may refer to the logframe concept for better understanding of
my analysis. You may if you like consider language as the Tower of Babel.
And today there are varieties of langaugaes in the African world. However
all the theories consider the fact that there has been branching or
mothers have been abandonning their daugthers. The linguists are trying
to retrace thge mothers of all the daugthers to finally REUNITE to their
mother. We accept that the gambian languages have some similarities and
some have the same tree thus there is a need to find out where the
branching has taken place. MO, you must like this enterprise! This is the
great job of mankind. For the final accomplishment of this task means
REUNITING the entire world. Remember therewas only one human being! Mo,
am I going too far? I will the line here.
Finally we rely on glottophagie which can provide us with the required
languages we require in the Gambia.
Mo, sorry to bother you with this stuff but read it and make fun of it
and throw me some stones if you like. Would you like to be multilinguist
or a unilinguist?
MO, dead men do not talk!

Man la deglou

On Wed, 30 Jul 1997 momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk wrote:

> On 30 Jul 97 at 16:56, O BALDEH wrote:
> > First of all there is a difference between a national language and
> > an official language. So if are asking whether we can have one of
> > our national languages as an official language, the answer is very
> > clear. But I will hold that answer till you clarify your concerns.
>
> Mr. Baldeh, I am not asking wether to have one of our various local
> languages as the official language. I am asking about a completely
> new language composed of the already existing languages. I am not a
> linguist but just someone curious about this possibility. According
> to what I understand from your lecture and that of Susan, I can see
> that this is very complicated and is out of question. I have never
> even heard of the new European language mentioned by Susan and Bass
> called "Esperanto" though I live in Europe.
>
> However, a very good example of making it obligatory for
> every Gambian school child to learn reading and writing skills of
> his/her mother tongue at the primary level has been mentioned in the
> discussion which I find very interesting.
> I believe that at the end of secondary school, every child should be
> able to speak two other Gambian languages apart from his/her mother
> tongue.
> There must be enough teaching materials on the Gambian languages
> especially with the experience we have with the peace corps who
> speak our local languages after short intensive courses.
>
> I am still eager to learn more about this subject if any one have
> more input.
>
> Thanks Bass, Susan and Omar.
>
> Momodou Camara
> *******************************************************
> http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara
>
> **"Start by doing what's necessary, then what's
> possible and suddenly you are doing the impossible"***
>

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Jul 1997 11:48:07 -0400 (EDT)
From: "N'Deye Marie N'Jie" <njie.1@osu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu, africans@iastate.edu
Cc: matala@iastate.edu
Subject: the hidden fortunes of african dictators(fwd)
Message-ID: <2.2.16.19970731114614.22877856@postbox.acs.ohio-state.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

>Date: Thu, 31 Jul 1997 11:17:19 -0400 (EDT)
>From: "Fatou N'Jie" <gs01fnn@panther.Gsu.EDU>
>Subject: Re: Loot (fwd)
>
>>
>>
>>
>> Does Africa really need leaders like this? This money is sadly enough at
>> the expense of their poor countries and its citizens!!! What a shame! What
>> do you think of this?
>>
>> Shortly after the demise of Mobutu Sese Seko, the French Magazine
>> _Evenement du jeudi_ (22-28 May, 1997) published a hit parade of the
>> hidden fortunes of African dictators. The values of their loots have
>> been given in French Francs.
>>
>> Name Country Loot (in FF)
>> --------------------------------------------------------------
>> 1. Felix Houphouet-Boigny Ivory Coast 35 billion
>> 2. Ibrahim Babangida Nigeira 30 billion
>> 3. Mobutu Sese Seko Zaire 22 billion
>> 4. Henri Konan Bedie Ivory Coast 2 billion
>> 5. Denis Sassou N'Guesso Congo 1.2 billion
>> 6. Omar Bongo Gabon 500 million
>> 7. Paul Biya Cameroon 450 million
>> 8. Mengistu Haile Mariam Ethiopia 200 million
>> 9. Moussa Traore Mali 10.8 million
>>
>> - ------- End of Forwarded Message
>>
>>
>> ------- End of Forwarded Message
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>
>
>
>

-----------------------------------
N'Deye Marie N'Jie
Graduate Research Associate
The Ohio State University
Rm 260 Agricultural Engineering Bldg
590 Woody Hayes Drive
Columbus, OH 43210

Fax: (614)292-9448
Phone: (614) 688-3445 (W)
E-mail: njie.1@osu.edu


------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Jul 1997 18:27:17 +0100 (BST)
From: O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <Pine.SOL.3.91.970731182300.11778B-100000@harrier.cen.brad.ac.uk>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Njie,
I would like give you more of what you need consequently. However, I am
not among those who advocate for selecting one national langyage among
the languages for the country. please note that. I am saying it is
possible to create a langaugae out of these languages but I am not
proposing one language in the place of others. I will not do that. Thats
schizo....
No hard feelings, just make records clear.
si jaamanobi.
Omar Baldeh

On Thu, 31 Jul 1997, M. Njie wrote:

> Momodou's question whether Gambian linquists can create a new
> language from the existing ones which could become our national
> language in 20-30 years' time, is not difficult to answer. The
> answer is YES, they can. But such an important national issue
> cannot be left to linguists alone. I am not sure whether a
> mixture of the most simple words will be enough, but I get
> your point the new language being inclusive of all the other
> languages.
>
> How language originated is still in dispute, with some
> maintaining that it is a gift from God, while others say it
> was invented by human beings. The Greeks believed that an
> ancient 'legislator' gave the true names to all things. I am
> not sure from Momodou's question, the domains in which the new
> language is to be used, but I would imagine that it would of
> higher status than the other languages. In which case, it
> would be used in domains such as Family, Technical, Administration,
> Education and Rural life.
>
> Language and cultural transmission are to some two sides of
> the same coin. Suffice to say that the new language should
> be accepted by society at large 'as suitable for its assigned
> role and of such functional importance as to be worth the
> effort of acquiring...it has an important bearing on
> motivation.'
>
> One of the problems with a national language in Africa,
> like in Kenya, is that employers rarely include Kiswahili in
> their list of qualifications for jobs. There may also be the
> case that certain wealthy people would prefer to send their
> kids abroad for education.
>
> Out of 53 African states, only about nine have a common
> national language. So it is a rather tricky subject. And in
> some countries that now have a national language,there are hist.reasons for
> it. Kiswahili, for example, was, to put it crudely, the mother
> tongue of only about ten percent of the population. But it
> has now acquired an almost neutral status, not least because
> of the massive support given to its development by the Germans
> and the willingness of the people to accept it. Momodou did
> not specifically ask this question, but I just wanted to put the
> national language issue in some context. Other members(Susan,
> Bass, Omar and Jainaba) have voiced their support for the
> selection of one of our national languages as THE national
> language, and I will have something to say about this by the
> middle of next week.
>
> I would however like to comment, if I may, about certain
> issues already raised by Omar. I agree with him that in the
> world, bilingualism is the norm, and monolingualism the
> exception. However, if a monolingual is someone who speaks only
> one language, there are many to be found in Britain, for
> example. This is probably because many of them do not see the
> need to learn another language, and they are many a time
> embarrassed by this. I may not get Omar's proper meaning of
> monolingualism. In which case, I am sorry. All the Africans
> that I know are at least bilingual, but our
> bilingualism/multilingualism is hardly recognised. For many, this
> means being able to speak only certain selected languages.
>
> Also, Omar appears to be saying that our indigenous
> languages are important to us, and at the same arguing that
> language is culture-neutral. Can he throw more light on this?
> I just want to ask two questions that sociolinguists sometimes ask.
> 1)Does learning another language entail learning another culture?
> 2)Does our own language DETERMINE our perception of the world?
> In trying to answer these questions, take into account, where
> the LEARNER travels and where the LANGUAGE travels.
>
> I agree with Omar that there is no evidence that one
> language is more ' primitive' than another. Suffice to say that
> all languages have grammar, phonology, syntax and lexicon. I
> wll elaborate next week, if there is any need for it, on the
> position of the 'univeralists' and the 'relativists' regarding
> the Principle of Linguistic Equality.
>
> If anyone wants to raise certain issues with me on this
> subject, publicly or privately, it would be much appreciated. I
> wish everyone a super weekend.
>
> Momodou
>
> PS I am sorry if I have caused distress to certain people
> regarding the length of the mail. That is why I raised the
> possibility of a private discussion.
>
>
>
>

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Jul 1997 13:42:44 -0400
From: Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
To: Gambia-L <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: fwd: Baby's diet affects adult survival chances --study
Message-ID: <33E0CE93.3D1D8CD8@earthlink.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Baby's diet affects adult survival chances --study
Copyright 1997 Reuters Ltd. All rights reserved.

(Release at 1800 GMT July 30)
LONDON, July 30 (Reuter) - Researchers working in Gambia said on
Wednesday they had found more evidence that what a woman eats during
pregnancy can strongly influence her child's chances of survival in
later life.
Babies born during or shortly after the 'hungry season', when food
is scarce and disease rife, are much more likely to die young, Andrew
Prentice and colleagues at the Medical Research Council's nutrition unit
in Cambridge found.
They said poor nutrition could damage an unborn baby's immune
system, making it more vulnerable to disease as it grew up.
"We present evidence that events in early life strongly influence
the adult survival prospects of rural Africans," Prentice's group wrote
in a letter to the science journal Nature.
"Our analysis of births and deaths in three Gambian villages dating
back to 1949 shows that people born during the annual 'hungry season'
are up to 10 times more likely to die prematurely in young adulthood."
Although the study was limited to a small area in the west African
coastal state of Gambia, they said their conclusions could have wider
implications.
Those born from July to December were at the highest risk of
premature death, mostly from infectious disease, they found.
"In the Gambia, the wet season (July-October) coincides with an
annual hungry period when staple foods from the previous harvest are
seriously depleted," they wrote.
At the same time, adults have to work hard in the fields, bringing
up the next crop, and the wet makes children more vulnerable to
diarrhoea and malaria.
Susan Jebb, a researcher who works with the Prentice group, said it
was not precisely clear at what stage of development the babies were
being affected.
"The only association that we have for sure at this moment is that
babies born in the wet season and just after the wet season are at
significantly increased risk of death," she said in a telephone
interview.
"It will mean that the final stage of pregnancy has been at a
nutritionally depleted time." Some of the babies would have been
conceived at the end of the previous year's 'hungry season', she added.
"Because pregnancy goes on for such a long time it is hard to
pinpoint precisely when this would have occurred."
But the group noted that poor nutrition leads to smaller babies.
"Impaired foetal growth reduces birthweight by roughly 200 to 300
grams (seven to 10 ounces) and doubles the incidence of low-birthweight
babies," they wrote, adding that this could mean immunity was impaired.
"Several components of the human immune system mature early in
foetal life," they added.
"We think nutritional programming of the foetus, leading to a
lifelong impairment of the immune system, is the most likely explanation
(of the children's reduced survival prospects)," Prentice said in a
statement.
"Hopefully our finding will shed light on infection-related deaths
in other, larger populations."

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Jul 1997 16:10:16 +0100 (BST)
From: "M. Njie" <mn015@students.stir.ac.uk>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: AFRICA-ECONOMY: Stop Blaming Bretto
Message-ID: <Pine.HPP.3.91.970731150358.15702B-100000@whale.students.stir.ac.uk>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

The thrust of my argument has been that one cannot
realistically discuss Africa's present problems without reference
to its immediate and distant past. This happens everywhere. I
do say we should live in the past. I do not say we should
sit down and point accusing fingers at others. Or do I? I
would like anyone to point out to me where I say that Africa
should not think ahead. Just one example.(I can forward all my
postings on the subject, if necessary). I MENTIONED the slave
trade, and some of its consequences. I want to know why I
was wrong to do so. I did not elaborate on it like I did
on the unfair trade relations between North-South (cf GATT, WTO),
the IMF and the World Bank, and other issues. I find it
extraordinary that the apparent apologists for slavery and
colonialism did not say a word about these.

I agree that a comprehensive analysis of our present
situation cannot be achieved by looking to the past
alone. But neither can it be achieved by looking to the
future alone. We have to look and keep on looking at every
period-past, present and future-if we are to avoid the mistakes
made by others. If our economists, politicians etc want to help
Africa out of its present crisis, they cannot realistically
hope to do so without looking at Africa's social and economic
history. Or can they?

This is my argument. I am quite willing to drop the
subject if some people find it uncomfortable, but I should not
be accused of living in the past, when all I am saying is
that we are not the helpless victims of our own fate. If
others feel we are, then we will have to agree to disagree
on this.

I have argued on this List before that Africa has never
been a perfect society, with or without colonialism; that we
need to look at what was wrong with the society in order to
create a better one. And we cannot do this successfully by
looking to the future. I am not advocating revenge. I respect
highly the intelligence of members to do such a silly and
counter-productive thing.

My comments about what happened Africans is
not directed at innocent westerners, who are themselves, then
and now, appalled by it all. In the company of such people,
I even play down the effects of colonialism etc. It is when
an insensitive remark is made-such as the one from Lamin's
'friends'-that I react differently. It happens to all normal
people. The same word/words can be interpreted in different
circumstances as either a joke or an insult. Now to other matters.

The latest 'Africa Initiative' from an American president is
noted. I wish it success, if only for the simple reason that
I may be a beneficiary. I like John F Kennedy and Jimmy
Carter. These, in my view, can be called men of action.

The expansion of American businesses in South Africa is also
welcome. There is nothing wrong with this, so long as it is
done in fairness. However, I did not like the tactics the
Americans used in hastening the departure of Mobutu and signing
unfair mining deals with Kabila, when he was still a rebel
leader. Nelson Mandela was only recently the leader of a
'terrorist organisation' in both London and Washington.

Western governments can make a big difference in the lives
of Africans and other less fortunate people. The reality is
that it is NGOs, including religious organisations, and private
individuals who are making the difference. And faceless
multi-national corporations are addicted to profit. Their record
in Africa is disgraceful. This has been the case since...

So long,
Momodou

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Jul 1997 21:58:25 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
Cc: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <19970731210210.AAA15746@LOCALNAME>

Omar, Sorry if you feel disappointed that my reply had been shorter
than you expected. I just answered the question I felt was relevant
to my enquiry. Though you had been asking a lot of questions, I could
see that you have been answering all the questions yourself.

If you understand my enquiry well you should know that I am not
saying that we should choose language so and so over another language
to become the national language. I am very much aware that Gambia is
inhabited my different language groupings which to me are all equal
no matter what size they are.

A Dane can say that Danish is his or her national language, the same
goes to a German and Swedish even an American would say that his or
her National language is American english. When a Gambian is asked,
the reply will be that we don't have a national language or we
would just call oursevles after our various language grouppings.
This is my reason for enquiring the possibility of the creation of
one (call it artificial if you want). By having such a language, I
believe we would see ourselves first as Gambians instead of being
from a certain language group.

I am aware of the fact that the Serer, Serahule, Jola, Fula, Mandinka
and Wollof language groupings were found in the place we now call
Gambia at various periods during the pre-colonial times. During that
time there were no Mandinka, Wollof, Fula, Jola, Serer, or Serahule
speaking kingdoms which involved only the members of each language
grouping. Fulas, Serahules, etc, could be found in settlements where
the predominant language was Mandinka. Different kings who spoke
Mandinka, Wollof, etc. established different states on the north and
south banks of the river. Even though the inhabitants of these states
spoke the same language, they were loyal to the states and not their
tribal origins. What is significant is that persons of Serer, Fula,
Mandinka, Aku, Baynunkas, Mansuanks, Karoninkas, Mandiago, Serahule,
Jola, and Wollof origins can be found in The Gambia Today. We are all
human beings who can think and work to build a better Gambia if we
respect and care for each other.

If you read my previous mail, I mentioned that I believe that every
child leaving secondary school should be able to speak two other
languages other than his/her mother tongue, this should answer your
question of wether I like to be multilinguist or a unilinguist.
Having a national language should not mean that we are going to
abandon the present languages.

I think referring to GOD here is irrelevant to my enquiry. You can
sit home and do nothing and wait for GOD to bring you knowledge and
food, since he/she has also created abundant food and knowledge. God
has given us brains to think and develop. We can't just give up and
say that its GODS wishes.

I think you misunderstood every thing if you think someone has said
that they think one language group is better than another.

BTW thanks for your elaboration.

Momodou Camara

PS: I hope that no one thinks that this discussion is personal
between me and Omar Baldeh. I think this is a national issue which
needs discussion. For the Gambia our homeland.......
*******************************************************
http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara

**"Start by doing what's necessary, then what's
possible and suddenly you are doing the impossible"***

------------------------------

Date: 31 Jul 1997 20:37:21 GMT
From: momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Fwd: XIN: ADB Initiative to Benefit Rural, Urban Poor
Message-ID: <2450710429.303902849@inform-bbs.dk>

QL engtg engLa engNc
..XHDGB
TB: ADB Initiative to Benefit Rural, Urban Poor
WC:1869

------------------------------

Date: 31 Jul 1997 20:40:32 GMT
From: momodou@inform-bbs.dk (Momodou Camara)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Fwd: XIN: Liberia's Taylor Visits Nigeria
Message-ID: <1715666943.303903040@inform-bbs.dk>

QL engtg engLa engNp
..XHDGB
TB: Liberia's Taylor Visits Nigeria
WC:1675

------------------------------

Date: Thu, 31 Jul 1997 17:58:04 -0400
From: Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <33E10A6C.6724A181@earthlink.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

I have been following this discussion with some interest. What began as
an argument for the choosing of one of our languages as the national
language to help foster national unity has grown to a discussion about
the feasibility of a national language, which language(s) should be
chosen and the idea of a newly created, all encompassing gambian
language.

This is truly great. As I read these posting I almost can't wait to see
how others will respond. Apart from being able to gauge how different
people feel about such a cultural issue on a national level, this
discussion has forced me to think about an issue I never really gave
much thought to.

Is it necessary for us to have a national language?

The argument is that it would help foster national unity thus allowing
people to feel like they belong to a nation first rather than their own
ethnic/tribal group.

By alluding to the political and cultural consequences of such a move I
would just be repeating what others have said. Instead, I offer what I
believe is a more realistic alternative that in time could bring much of
the same rewards of a national language, i.e. national unity, and much
more.

I would advocate leaving and developing the status quo. As it is, we
have one official language and several national or local languages. The
most important aspect of those local languages is the respective
cultures they represent. True national unity will be recognized when
all those cultures become truly representative of Gambia as a whole.
This may happen through curriculum advances in education, state run
initiatives or civil society.

As far as a unifying means of communication is concerned, why not work
with what we have, English, the language being used here in this
unifying forum on the Internet.

Yes it was thrust upon us by the people who share the same name as the
language but we must also remember that they are also most responsible
for The Gambia, our nation. If our Republican founding fathers decided
to keep the language and borders that were imposed on us as official and
if nearly thirty years later, there was a renewed national commitment to
that decision, then perhaps true unity will come when that official
language becomes the most widely spoken one.

Of course the fruits that would come with this include a sweet tasting
one called low illiteracy and another called true economic development.

Peace.

Latir Gheran

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 05:21:34 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: (Fwd) : XIN: Liberia's Taylor Visits Nigeria
Message-ID: <19970801042321.AAA26890@LOCALNAME>

Liberia's Taylor Visits Nigeria

LAGOS, July 29 (Xinhua) -- Liberia's President-elect Charles
Taylor said in the Nigerian capital Abuja on Monday that his
government would rely heavily on international goodwill in its
bid to rebuild the country.
Taylor is in Nigeria to hold pre-inauguration talks with
Nigeria's Head of State General Sani Abacha in his capacity as
the chairman of the Economic Community of West African States
(ECOWAS).
The Liberian president-elect said his government intends to
get everyone, including opposition members, involved in building
a new Liberia.
Taylor, clad in a navy-blue stripped suit, a pair of dark
glasses and a pair of black shoes to match, was accompanied by
his wife Jewel, the wife of vice President-elect, Mrs. Regina
Dogolea, in-coming Defence Minister, Daniel Chea, and other
members of his cabinet-in-waiting.
The three-day visit to Nigeria is Taylor's first foreign trip
since he was declared winner of the July 19 polls in Liberia.
During the stay, he is expected to confer with General Abacha,
Foreign Ministry officials and members of the political and
business classes.
Security matters will also feature prominently during the
talks.
However, at the time of Taylor's arrival, General Abacha was
in Accra, Ghana, for a one-day visit and was due back in Abuja
late Monday night.
The mission of Abacha to Ghana was however not known as the
visit, like most of his recent foreign trips, was shrouded in
secrecy. Enditem

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 05:21:35 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: (Fwd) :ADB Initiative to Benefit Rural, Urban Poor
Message-ID: <19970801042321.AAB26890@LOCALNAME>

ADB Initiative to Benefit Rural, Urban Poor

HARARE, July 29 (Xinhua) -- The African Development Bank (ADB)
today said it will launch an initiative this year to increase
accessibility of financial services to the urban and rural poor.
ADB Executive Director Alice Dear said the ADB micro-finance
initiative for Africa (AMINA) would go a long way in assisting
women who had been economically marginalized for a long time.
The director of the Abidjan-based institution said this in a
keynote address at the opening of Kushandira Pamwe international
conference in Harare.
Kushandira Pamwe is a British-based voluntary organization
formed by African women living outside the continent and seeks to
promote the interests of locals.
The theme for this year's conference being attended by people
from 17 countries is ''the African Girl Child, Her Future
Employment Prospects and the Challenges Ahead''.
''The majority of micro-entrepreneurs in Africa are women,''
said Dear, adding, ''but these key economic agents have been
denied access to modern banking services.''
The women, she said, would benefit as the initiative was
targeted at those in the lowest income groups.
Dear said the initiative would allow women to increase their
income and accumulate capital through macro-loans and savings.
The bank, she said, would leverage its limited funds by
investing in the most promising micro-finance institutions
particularly those with the greatest potential to reach large
numbers of disadvantaged populations.
Meanwhile, Dear urged governments, non-governmental
organizations and civil society to do more to ensure a bright
future for the African girl. Enditem


------------------------------

Date: Fri, 01 Aug 1997 02:03:43 -0400
From: Latir Downes-Thomas <latir@earthlink.net>
To: Gambia-L <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: GambiaNet Advisory Board
Message-ID: <33E17C3F.488A3287@earthlink.net>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

Dear List Members,

The GambiaNet Board of Directors wishes to announce that we are seeking
candidates with **legal expertise** to assist us in the capacity of
Advisory Board Members.

Under our draft Bylaws, the definition and duties of the Advisory Board
are as follows:

SECTION (3) ADVISORY BOARD

(A) DEFINED: There shall be an Advisory Board which will consist of
members of the Organization appointed by the Board.

(B) DUTIES: The function of the Advisory Board shall be to examine
issues and questions presented by the Board as to options and courses of
actions available to the Board.

If you are selected by the Board of Directors to be an Advisory Board
member you will be an invaluable member of the organisation. From time
to time issues may arise or questions may be asked and help from
professionals or those with a working knowledge of the issue at hand
will be greatly needed.

At this time, the Board of Directors is seeking to appoint those members
of the list who have legal backgrounds to join the Advisory Board for a
term of one year. Since the Board of Directors has the ultimate
responsibility for the GambiaNet Organisation, initially, we wish to
seek comment from "legal minds" on our draft Bylaws before formally
adopting them and on an impending business contract.

The Bylaws state clearly that the members of the Advisory Board must
come from the Membership of GambiaNet so the Board of Directors will
grant Advisory Board members full membership to GambiaNet and membership
fees will be waived.

If you are someone with a legal background or studying law, and have the
intention of joining GambiaNet, we ask that you kindly consider helping
us by joining this Board and playing a vital role in this new exciting
cyberspace venture! This initial request is for three members and the
duties as stated in the Bylaws are purely advisory. Any help sought by
the Board of Directors will be divided among the members so that any
work with the Organisation will add just a minimal workload to your
schedules.

If you are interested, please send a request to my email address:
latir@earthlink.net

Please include a brief account of your professional background that also
includes the number of years in the mentioned profession(s), and your
current country of residence.

GambiaNet, as you may have already been informed, is a non profit,
apolitical membership based organisation registered in Chicago,
Illinois, USA. It was founded by a group of Gambians from the Internet
based "GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List" who
initially came together to provide a means of putting a Gambian based
newspaper on the Internet for the Gambian Internet community.

That project, called Observer Online, is now coming into fruition as
part of the services to be offered by GambiaNet to its members.

As stated in our draft Bylaws, GambiaNet shall:

"...operate exclusively for not-for-profit purposes within the meaning
of section 501(c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code to
promote through its members the social, cultural, informational and
educational interests of the Gambia throughout the world. It shall:

1. Provide for the dissemination of informational, educational and
literary material from and about the Gambia to the Internet and
other media.
2. Bring and share information about the social, economic and political
developments in The Gambia.
3. Provide a forum for exchanging ideas and for discussions on
matters related to The Gambia.
4. Promote matters related to The Gambia and Gambian or African
cultural heritage.
5. Raise funds for educational purposes in the Gambia and the Gambian
diaspora.
6. Include other activities related to Gambia agreed upon by the Board
of Directors.
7. Operate on a politically impartial basis and shall not render
support or endorsement to, nor shall it denounce, any political
group or party in The Gambia and abroad."

Thank you for your kind cooperation.

Sincerely,

Latir Gheran Downes-Thomas
latir@earthlink.net
Public Relations Representative
GambiaNet

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 09:02:47 +0200
From: =?iso-8859-1?Q?Asbj=F8rn_Nordam?= <asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk>
To: "'gambia'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: =?iso-8859-1?Q?Baby=B4s_diet_affects_adult_survival?=
Message-ID: <9B236DF9AF96CF11A5C94044F32190311010BD@dkdifs02.dif.dk>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

I think this is well know, but now it is proved. And how will we (the
society) then learn from this ? Should pregnant women be spared for the
hard work ? Yes I think. And if so, how will the society compensate the
family for the lose of the mothers work in the fields or where-ever ?
And next: when we know of such a short of good- food-period, how will =
we
as a state ensure that there will be enough food-supplies in the future
? Storage or how ?
I think this must be given high priority in both Ministry of =
agriculture
and Ministry of health. Asbj=F8rn Nordam

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 14:00:31 +-300
From: BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: =?iso-8859-1?Q?RE=3A_Baby=B4s_diet_affects_adult_survival?=
Message-ID: <01BC9E83.68D93120@ddck.qatar.net.qa>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="---- =_NextPart_000_01BC9E83.68D93120"


------ =_NextPart_000_01BC9E83.68D93120
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Good point there,Mr.Nordam.Keep up the good work down there!

Regards Basss!

----------
From: Asbj=F8rn Nordam[SMTP:asbjorn.nordam@dif.dk]
Sent: 01 =D4=DA=C8=C7=E4, 1997 10:02
To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
Subject: Baby=B4s diet affects adult survival


And next: when we know of such a short of good- food-period, how will we
as a state ensure that there will be enough food-supplies in the future
? Storage or how ?
I think this must be given high priority in both Ministry of agriculture
and Ministry of health. Asbj=F8rn Nordam




------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 15:02:01 +0100 (BST)
From: O BALDEH <O.Baldeh@Bradford.ac.uk>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Cc: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: A Gambian National Language
Message-ID: <Pine.SOL.3.91.970801131048.23423A-100000@merlin.cen.brad.ac.uk>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII

Momodou camara,

You asked: " Is it possible to create a new language from the existing
ones which could become our national langauges in 20-30 yrs. time?
The new language could be a mixture of the most simple words from each of
the present languages.
I answered YES IT IS POSSIBLE:
I told you this is as simple for a linguist as asking him to construct a
dictionary. I went on to elaborate the various sections in linguistics
which the Gambian linguists can exploit.

My second possibility was just by following the various theories
available with regards to the origins of the various languages available
today. In essence by retracing where the branchings have taken place we
would be able to use the mother as the national language since it will
just be a matter of reuniting the daugthers to their mothers.

Thirdly, I told you we can rely on Glottophagie.
However before I answered you I asked some clarification with regards to
national and official language. This you did. This was just to make sure
that you do not fall in the confusion you have just found yourself when
you said if a gambian is asked what is his national langugae he will in
a way be FORCED to identify himself with the language group.

Secondly I asked in my own ways the rationale of a national language
among the ones we have, realising that if this question is aked people
will tend to choose among the languages. This is the case with Susan's.
However she did indicate that this is rather impossible. In my attempt to
make you understand what I am talking about and make you understand why
you are confused with the the issue of national language, I decided to
elaborate about the importance of languages. This strategy is very
desirable for if you do not know what is a language the importance of
language, its
rationale, even if you have one language in a country it may not serve
its purpose. In fact there is already somebody who is asking about the
origin of languages.It is in this line of analysis
that I talked about choosing among our languages. I refered to GOD
withregards to the TOWER of BABEL, VERB. This was in a way to help you
understand the rationale of languages from the spiritual point of view.
Because what ever definition, proposition people give you about languages
if you read the the Quran or the Bible you woul be able to have own
version of it. But you do no have to be lazy person. So my reference to
GOD was nothing but a way to tell you eh MOMODOU, the best answers to
your questions is to read these GREAT references. I feel that you are an
intelectual and would not like to be fed! I could have kept quiet. I
could choose not to give you my views and leave in your wilderness. But
I choose to give you my views from a linguistic point of view because you
wanted a linquistic answer. I can even give you a political answer which
are try to come up with; but I was just waiting for you to ask eh Mr
Baldeh but if you improvise this so-called language would it be spoken,
will people accept it, what will be the fate of the other languages, what
will be its relation with our official language etc etc...? I woul have
shifted to politique linguistique, philosophie du langage, sociology
and/or sociolinguistic, to economics and decorate it with philosophy and
religion. These are all areas you will entitled to browse through
when studying linguistics. MOMODOU, language and the question of language is
not a simple
issue especially when you are dealing with AFRICAN contexts. I am not a
know-all and I am not pretending to one. I am just a poor student like
you if not worst in intellectual terms. But what I see respectable in you
is your concerns about LANGUAGE and naming me among others! For if able
to reach other today it is through language and language is a more
important issue to africa and africans than to anybody and to any where
in world. This is where my respect for you lies!

About the multilinguism issue I raised, it was in regards to the
civilisation universelle or the great unification of the world that it is
mentioned. It was not addressed to you; that is why the statement was
followed by an exclamation mark and said you woul like it as a joke. This
is because a great ambition for all well wishers of this univers and it
is only possible in terms of multilinguism. I am not refering to your
linguistic status. MOMODOU I should have told you that when reading my
text you should pay attention to the ponctuations and the style. The
'you' I was using was the impersonnel one and includes all. Do not feel
addressed and offended. My style incorporated questions and answers. But
you know I do not have questions. It is you who have questions; and as
you rightly said I answered most of questions. This is the style adopted
by critique literaire and since you are may be doing liberal arts you
must be aware of it. This is scintific and makes people democratic when
analysing texts, other people's views etc... MOMODOU if you are not
familiar with these techniques or if you are not doing arts or economics
I may appologise for thinking otherwise. But it is the minimum to expect
from academics or intellectuals or students.
Telling me that from your accepting that 'every child leaving secondary
school should speak two or more languages' indicates that you are for
multilinguism, does not even sound coherent. For uno== in the Gambia ,ost
people are bilingual and even multilinguist and even without formal
education they can become multilinguist. Secondly I atleast participated
in providing instructional materials for the learning of these languages
for our Gambian people not for the purpose of multilinguism but for other
things. It is not by formalising national languages that our children learn
our national languages there are more other things to that. So here too
you are confusing between two issues. Feel free to ask...

What makes your e-mail most pitiful- de ma la yerem- is the paragraph
whic talks about the dane and all the stuff added. When a gambian is
asked about his national language, here is the way he should proceed:
MO, first of all the sociolinguistic aspect of the Gambia like another
african country is completely different from a Danish or.... So when a
Gambian is asked a question by somebody who does not the language
lanscape, the Gambian should make the latter understand that the
environments are different. You should not allow people to put words in
your mouth! MoMODOU by saying "when the Gambian isasked the reply will be
that we don't have a national language or we would just call ourselves
after various languages groups" indicates that you are analysing our
situation an alien approach without understanding what animates it. This
means you are answering this Danish man by putting yourself in his
language environment where there is only an official national language
and nothing else. MOMODOU you are in Europe but you are not a EUROPEAN.
So when you are asked about our national language you should go back to
the african context and answer the question do not answer it while
thinking in the european way!

MOMODOU, you have not done me justice. I did not misunderstood you, I am
not questioning your linguistic preferences. I have no questions. What I my
mistake is trying
to provide you with information you requested and in so doing wasted my
time. MO, you could have improved upon what I have said or ask for
materials but you were very ironical but you cannot even use this
literay weapon!
I still insist on my answers: That it is possiblr to create a new
language and this can be possible through ways I enumerated above.

MOMODOU, I have no questions. The only question I have and which you did
not answer is what is a PEACECORP, as you mentioned that they are
involved in our national languages. I want to find out whether you
understand what you are even talking about. For if you don't understand
what you are asking you should understand atleats what you are talking
about.
NO hard feelings, it is just another way of using few sentences and
pounctuations. I do not want people to transfer the Gambian way of
discussing where chalo reads nettetu and insists that he knows kon. There
is a boy whose writings I enjoyed reading when it comes to discusion that
is one marong. The rest will just ask questions while they themselves
want to talk about it. It is either you ask questions or ... It is either
we use the Gambia mail as information dispatching or for fruitful
discussion but not for that gambian way of talking bla bla bla bla bla
while drinking a lot atayaya and not reading alot of taya!

NTB.== when you read me Mo, read me completely and when you comment on me
comment on the whole text.
Sorry for a lot of adverbs and adjectives. Long live the Gambia l- and
for fruitful discussion and not for chatterarerarerarrrrraaaaa...

Omar Baldeh







On Thu, 31 Jul 1997 momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk wrote:

> Omar, Sorry if you feel disappointed that my reply had been shorter
> than you expected. I just answered the question I felt was relevant
> to my enquiry. Though you had been asking a lot of questions, I could
> see that you have been answering all the questions yourself.
>
> If you understand my enquiry well you should know that I am not
> saying that we should choose language so and so over another language
> to become the national language. I am very much aware that Gambia is
> inhabited my different language groupings which to me are all equal
> no matter what size they are.
>
> A Dane can say that Danish is his or her national language, the same
> goes to a German and Swedish even an American would say that his or
> her National language is American english. When a Gambian is asked,
> the reply will be that we don't have a national language or we
> would just call oursevles after our various language grouppings.
> This is my reason for enquiring the possibility of the creation of
> one (call it artificial if you want). By having such a language, I
> believe we would see ourselves first as Gambians instead of being
> from a certain language group.
>
> I am aware of the fact that the Serer, Serahule, Jola, Fula, Mandinka
> and Wollof language groupings were found in the place we now call
> Gambia at various periods during the pre-colonial times. During that
> time there were no Mandinka, Wollof, Fula, Jola, Serer, or Serahule
> speaking kingdoms which involved only the members of each language
> grouping. Fulas, Serahules, etc, could be found in settlements where
> the predominant language was Mandinka. Different kings who spoke
> Mandinka, Wollof, etc. established different states on the north and
> south banks of the river. Even though the inhabitants of these states
> spoke the same language, they were loyal to the states and not their
> tribal origins. What is significant is that persons of Serer, Fula,
> Mandinka, Aku, Baynunkas, Mansuanks, Karoninkas, Mandiago, Serahule,
> Jola, and Wollof origins can be found in The Gambia Today. We are all
> human beings who can think and work to build a better Gambia if we
> respect and care for each other.
>
> If you read my previous mail, I mentioned that I believe that every
> child leaving secondary school should be able to speak two other
> languages other than his/her mother tongue, this should answer your
> question of wether I like to be multilinguist or a unilinguist.
> Having a national language should not mean that we are going to
> abandon the present languages.
>
> I think referring to GOD here is irrelevant to my enquiry. You can
> sit home and do nothing and wait for GOD to bring you knowledge and
> food, since he/she has also created abundant food and knowledge. God
> has given us brains to think and develop. We can't just give up and
> say that its GODS wishes.
>
> I think you misunderstood every thing if you think someone has said
> that they think one language group is better than another.
>
> BTW thanks for your elaboration.
>
> Momodou Camara
>
> PS: I hope that no one thinks that this discussion is personal
> between me and Omar Baldeh. I think this is a national issue which
> needs discussion. For the Gambia our homeland.......
> *******************************************************
> http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara
>
> **"Start by doing what's necessary, then what's
> possible and suddenly you are doing the impossible"***
>

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 16:20:01 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: New members
Message-ID: <19970801152143.AAA26906@LOCALNAME>

Gambia-l,
Both Omar Gassama and Lamin Conteh have recently been added to
the list. Welcome to the Gambia-l, we look forward to your
contributions.

Please send a brief introduction to: gambia-l@u.washington.edu



Momodou Camara

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 01 Aug 1997 10:52:06
From: conteh@usa.net
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: MY INTRODUCTION
Message-ID: <ww02-BHaq1F2638@netaddress.usa.net>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

GREETING ALL. MY NAME IS LAMIN JAMIL CONTEH BUT MY HOUSE NAME IS MINO.
I WAS BORN IN FREETOWN -SIERRA LEONE BUT MY MOTHER IS A GAMBIAN AND I
LIVED IN BRIKAMA FROM 1989 TO 1997. I DID TRADING BUSINESS THERE BUT
NOW I LIVE IN PENN. -USA.
MY FRIEND TOLS ME ABOUT THE GAMBIAN INTERNET AND I AM VERY ANXIOUS TO
HEAR FROM ALL THE GAMBIAN ALL OVER THE WORLD AND TO GET THE LATEST NEWS
FROM GAMBIA.

BYE FOR NOW. - MINO

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 20:26:22 +-300
From: BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: MY INTRODUCTION
Message-ID: <01BC9EB9.32DFD700@kolls567>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="---- =_NextPart_000_01BC9EB9.32E77820"


------ =_NextPart_000_01BC9EB9.32E77820
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Lamin!
It was great that your friend told you about the Gambia-L.It is the =
finest around here! So,feel free to express yourself, esp.issues =
regarding Gambia and Africa.WELCOME onboard the Bantabaaa.. Mr. Conteh!

Regards Basss!

----------
From: conteh@usa.net[SMTP:conteh@usa.net]
Sent: 01 =D4=DA=C8=C7=E4, 1997 13:52
To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
Subject: MY INTRODUCTION
MY FRIEND TOLS ME ABOUT THE GAMBIAN INTERNET AND I AM VERY ANXIOUS TO=20
HEAR FROM ALL THE GAMBIAN ALL OVER THE WORLD AND TO GET THE LATEST NEWS=20
FROM GAMBIA.

BYE FOR NOW. - MINO




------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 13:46:34 -0400 (EDT)
From: "N'Deye Marie N'Jie" <njie.1@osu.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu, africans@iastate.edu
Cc: fanjie@gsu.edu, akala.1@osu.edu, ganesan.4@osu.edu,
jacka@einstein.franklin.edu
Subject: Something different... (fwd)
Message-ID: <2.2.16.19970801134442.22674d46@postbox.acs.ohio-state.edu>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

>Date: Sat, 26 Jul 1997 01:59:48 -0400
>From: "S. Olu von George" <gott@us.net>
>To: njie.1@osu.edu
>X-Provider: US Net - Advanced Internet Services - (301) 572-5926 - info@us.net
> Where Business Connects! (tm) -- http://www.us.net/
>

>>WHY DID THE CHICKEN CROSS THE ROAD?
>>
>>Machiavelli: The point is that the chicken crossed the road. Does it
>matter why? The ends of crossing the road justify whatever motive there
>was.
>>
>>Albert Camus: It doesn't matter; the chicken's actions have no meaning
>except to him.
>>
>>Darwin: Chickens, over great periods of time, have been naturally
>selected in such a way that they are now genetically dispositioned to
>cross roads.
>>
>>Richard Nixon: The chicken did not cross the road. I repeat,the chicken
>did not cross the road.
>>
>>Louis Farrakhan: The road, you should see, represents the black man. The
>chicken crossed the road to trample the black man and keep him down.
>>
>>Freud: The fact that you think the chicken crossed the road reveals your
>underlying sexual insecurity.
>>
>>Buddha: If you ask this question, you deny your own chicken nature.
>>
>>Ernest Hemingway: To die. In the rain.
>>
>>Ralph Waldo Emerson: It didn't cross the road, it transcended it.
>>
>>The Pope: This is only for God to know.
>>
>>Martin Luther King, Jr.: I envision a world where all chickens will be
>free to cross roads without their motives being called into question.
>>
>>John Locke: Because he was exercising his natural right to liberty.
>>
>>Oliver Stone: The question is not "why did the chicken cross the road?"
>but is rather "who was crossing the road at the same time that we
>overlooked in our haste to observe the chicken?"
>>
>>Jerry Seinfeld: Why does anyone cross a road? I mean, why doesn't
>anyone ever think to ask "what the heck was that chicken doing walking
>around all over the place anyway?"
>>
>>Bill Clinton: (if the chicken reaches the other side) It was my idea. If
>the chicken is hit by a car, it was a Republican initiative.
>>
>>Grandpa: In my day, we didn't ask. If someone told us the chicken
>crossed the road, that was good enough for us.
>>
>>Ross Perot: I don't know - but these charts prove we can no longer
>afford to let chickens cross the road.
>>
>>Bill Gates: I have just released the new Chicken 2000 which will cross
>roads much faster, though when it divides 3 by 2 it gets
>1.4999999999999.
>>
>>Colonel Sanders: I missed one?
>>
>>Karl Marx: It was historical inevitability.
>>
>>Nietzsche: Because if you gaze too long across the road, the road gazes
>also across you.
>>
>>B.F. Skinner: Because the external influences, which have pervaded its
>sensorium from birth, had caused it to develop in such a fashion that it
>would tend to cross roads, even while believing these actions to be of
>its
>own free will.
>>
>>Albert Einstein: Whether the chicken crossed the road or the road
>crossed the chicken depends upon your frame of reference.
>
>

-----------------------------------
N'Deye Marie N'Jie
Graduate Research Associate
The Ohio State University
Rm 260 Agricultural Engineering Bldg
590 Woody Hayes Drive
Columbus, OH 43210

Fax: (614)292-9448
Phone: (614) 688-3445 (W)
E-mail: njie.1@osu.edu


------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 22:28:29 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Fwd:Ethiopia to Join African Peacekeeping Forces
Message-ID: <19970801213015.AAB17070@LOCALNAME>

Ethiopia to Join African Peacekeeping Forces

NAIROBI, July 30 (Xinhua) -- Ethiopia will join Malawi, Mali,
Senegal and Uganda in building up the African peace-keeping
capacities, said a report from the Ethiopian capital, Addis
Ababa.
Marshall McCallie, special coordinator for the African Crisis
Response Initiative, said that U.S military
trainers will start drilling soldiers from Malawi, Ethiopia and
Mali later this year, Kenya's Daily Nation reported today .
Altogether 54 American instructors from Fort Bragg, North
Carolina, have arrived in Dakar, Senegala, over the weekend to
start training 800 Senegalese troops on Friday.
The African Crisis Response Initiative calls for U.S
peacekeeping training throughout the continent in cooperation
with France and Britain, who are conducting their exercise
separately.
The initiative was pieced together after France and South
Africa criticised a U.S proposal to train a 10,000-member force
last year. Enditem


______________FWD END__________________________
*******************************************************
http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara

**"Start by doing what's necessary, then what's
possible and suddenly you are doing the impossible"***

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 22:28:29 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: FWD: ECOWAS Talks with S. Leone Junta May Deadlock
Message-ID: <19970801213015.AAA17070@LOCALNAME>


ECOWAS Talks with S. Leone Junta May Deadlock

(By Chang Yong)

LAGOS, July 31 (Xinhua) -- Renewed efforts to restore
democracy in Sierra Leone may go into a deadlock with indications of
attitudinal differences among west African countries, media reports
said today.
The second-round talks between Sierra Leone's military
government and foreign ministers of Nigeria, Ghana, Guinea and
Cote d'Ivoire representing the Economic Community of West African
States (ECOWAS) continued Wednesday for the second day in Abidjan,
Cote d'Ivoire.
It is reported that Tom Ikimi, Nigerian Foreign Minister and
leader of the ECOWAS committee of four, said Wednesday he was
optimistic that the Sierra Leone crisis would soon be resolved.
However, his Ghanaian and Cote d'Ivoirian counterparts were
quoted as suggesting that enough time be given to the coup leader to
restore democracy.
The two parties held the first round talks in Abidjan two
weeks ago and decided another meeting should be held one week
later so that the junta could have time to consider ways to
resolve the crisis.
After the break, according to reports, the military junta gave four
conditions including the release of Fonday Sankoh, leader of the
former rebel Revolutionary United Front that had fought successive
governments since 1991.
Sankoh is said to be in detention in Nigeria and his group had
allied with the military government in the wake of the May 25 coup
which overthrew the civilian government led by ousted President Ahmed
Tejan Kabbah.
The coup leader Major Johnny Koroma had earlier insisted on
conducting fresh polls or inauguration of a national conference
to determine the fate of deposed Kabbah.
When the two parties met for the first time in Abidjan,
Koroma's envoys told the ECOWAS foreign ministers that vacating
power for Koroma did not arise, while elections could not be held in
Sierra Leone for now, given the intense political hostilities among
various ethnic groups.
A member of Koroma's delegation was quoted as saying on
Tuesday that the military would not hand over power to Kabbah,
but to another democratically elected government.
Analysts noted that the sub-regional effort could be stalled
over the demand by Koroma for Sankoh's release ahead of any
meaningful negotiation.
The committee of four has earlier asked the Koroma regime to
hand over power to Kabbah's government or it will employ embargo
or even force to oust the military junta.
As a matter of fact, the blockade by the west African
peace-keeping force (ECOMOG) has resulted in short supply of
foodstuffs and drugs in the war-torn country. Enditem

_________________FWD END_______________________
*******************************************************
http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara

**"Start by doing what's necessary, then what's
possible and suddenly you are doing the impossible"***

------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 15:29:46 -0700 (PDT)
From: "A. Loum" <tloum@u.washington.edu>
To: Gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Vacation
Message-ID: <Pine.OSF.3.96.970801151120.6818A-100000@saul3.u.washington.edu>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII



Gambia-l, I will be on vacation effective 8/2 for about the next two
weeks, will be out
of Seattle and will definitely be off line. Any list problems and related
issues should be directed to Abdourahman Touray, the co-list manager for
possible solutions. Abdou's email is at137@columbia.edu
Momodou Camara is always vigilant on the smooth and
normal functioning of the list and I am urging him to continue this
good work and immediately
report any abnormalities to Abdou upon first perception.
When I reach San Jose, California next Friday the 8th, I will try
and telnet into my UW account ( if successful ) from my sister's computer
to find out about the past events.
Thanks and a nice weekend to every one.
Tony


========================================================================

Anthony W Loum tloum@u.washington.edu
Supervisor, Business Administration Library 206-543-4360 voice
100 Balmer Hall 206-685-9392 fax
University of Washington
Box 353200
Seattle, Wa.98195-3200

=========================================================================





------------------------------

Date: Fri, 1 Aug 1997 23:38:45 +0100
From: "The Gambia-L shadow list" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: "gambia-l" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Cc: "Pico" <samba1@juno.com>
Subject: re: Development of subsaharan africa
Message-ID: <B0000002802@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

This is forwarded from "Pa Musa Jallow" <pmj@commit.gm>
(pmj@commit.gm)


People

As a development engineer based in The Gambia and a Gambian too, I want to
contribute to this discourse
There is no question that the ongoing revolution affecting humankind is the
Information age..briefly..it can be said that Human development has
increased in leaps and bounds since the invention of the Printing
press..written and transferrable data has enabled others to continue
research and development not start from zero..i.e. build on..
someone remarked that probably the most unrecognized phenomeon is how a
sub-saharan African, born of peasant and cattleherding stock can in one
generation make the transition into a nuclear scientist etc.. which
practically describes most of us..if one discounts the in-built complex of
self doubt and inferiority built over the past century..there is no real
phenomenon..as humans and any human the capacity is there..

I was in Singapore in late 1996 and Singapore is 1/20th the size of the
Gambia, swampy etc..etc.. question is why has Singapore developed
(materially) and not The Gambia or Ghana at the same level..is this an
inherent African failure..the answer is yes and no..
probable reasons:
1. Proximity: All Asia, Africa, the Americas and Australia come under
European domination..all the others measure European incursion in centuries
at most..in Africa it is millenia..Foreign incursion and disruption to
Africa goes back to the Greeks etc.. is that good or bad..in the whole
context..it is human development pattern..societies and cultures collide
and impart on each other..positively and negatively
Europe's proximity to Africa ensured that in the 19th and early 20th
centuries during colonization, Europe could afford to import even..lowly
clerks ensuring that the minimum number of africans were trained in
rudimentary modern government.. in Asia, distance alone and size of
population ensured that a number of natives had to be trained and utilized
in ruling/governing the lands.
in the race for modern Eurocentric development..it is no wonder that we lag
behind..not in calibre and quality of trained persons but in quantity..
we study with all of them and we definitely do not score below them if not
above them..in Europe and the Americas.. Africans have a reputation of
being '' very smart" which I always said was benignly discriminatory.. in
1987 when I graduated with Advanced Levels.. for the whole Republic of The
Gambia..there were only 29 Science Sixth Formers.. 10 years later..we are
all mostly graduates with very high academic accolades..just by
percentage..that made us at the least the the top 0.01% in the nation, if
we come together with the top 1% of any nation we are bound to compete and
do very well.
2. Opportunity
Singapore was a European stop and step on the way to the Far East and the
Australia..this required a requisite level of investment and development in
terms of infrastructure..airport, seaport, oil refineries, hotels
etc..which were either private or facilitated.
In Africa, government had to utilise its own scarce resources to develop
hotels..(the Atlantic in The Gambia), roads, seaports and airports and beg
for users..the Airport in the Gambia has a theorectical capacity of 200,000
aircraft movements ( landings + take-offs) per annum and traffic is
currently at 15,000 a.c. movements p.a. In economic terms, the benefit-cost
ratio is practically negative.
( Let us also face it that in the mean time and the near future, any
development any where is tied to Western interest until we can develop
alternate or parallel interests)
A good sign is the fact that Asian Tiger economies and Japan..having an
edge in the Info-industrial competition are aggressively seeking their own
markets where they are not subject to quotas (re: very real free
enterprise) and this is evidenced with a current race to invest in Africa
spearheaded by Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore lagging..the Singapore
chinese are more oriented towards China.. People's Republic..an other cum
Africa giant..slowly but surely emerging. The complaints of the West about
Asian and U.S. interests in Africa..(US :Central & Great Lakes) and
(Malaysia in S.Africa, Zimbabwe etc) are very entertaining..over 50 years
Europe has failed to provide Africa with any real and meaningful
development investment..cost of development capital in The Gambia is
26%..enough to ensure there is no development.it is about 4-5% 6 hours
flight away but an African will not get it.

Anyway to try to shorten this, I have tried to point the culminating facts
behind our current underdeveloped status..Education & Opportunity..and the
fact that the West does view the rest of us as competitors and spend some
of its resources in neutralizing this threat..in human terms..this is
acceptable..life is a struggle
we have also struggled and had a lot of victories but the struggle
continues and may never end.. it has not yet ended anyway in recorded
history but as a whole hmankind has progressed and evolved and more and
more we are coming up with activities, conducts etc..that we have
collectively decided are not acceptable anymore..genicode, slavery, etc..
and this will continue to include racial and other forms of discrimination,
unfair trading practices, FGM, etc..

In understanding and appreciating the historical context and how it
continues to impact and affect our decison-making capacity, then we can
successively chart our path into the future..
the question after a generation (30 years) of so-called independence what
has africa and the Africa-client states achieved..not much but quite alot..
in 1965..there were about 30 primary schools in The Gambia and 4 high
schools..in 30 years..there are now about 50 high schools and at least 1000
primary schools..if one looks at the % increase it is phenomenal but it is
still not enough..Africa's development the past 30 years is Us..all of
Us..we are responsible for the next phase.

I will stop here now and invite your comments and next I will proceed on
what and how ( I think) Africa should develop..we will develop because
there is no choice we will mistakes, mis-steps but we will get there..

Peace

pmj

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 2 Aug 1997 00:53:24 -0400 (EDT)
From: MJagana@aol.com
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: Vacation
Message-ID: <970802005324_985280800@emout13.mail.aol.com>



Have a nice time Tony

Mj

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 2 Aug 1997 18:02:33 +-300
From: BASSIROU DODOU DRAMMEH <kolls567@qatar.net.qa>
To: "'gambia-l@u.washington.edu'" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Subject: RE: Development of subsaharan africa
Message-ID: <01BC9F6E.62583C60@dige.qatar.net.qa>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="---- =_NextPart_000_01BC9F6E.625FDD80"


------ =_NextPart_000_01BC9F6E.625FDD80
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Mr.Jallow!

".Africa's development the past 30 years is Us..all of
Us..we are responsible for the next phase."

I very strongly agree with you that we the present generation are =
responsible for the next phase of our Continent's surge into the 21st =
Century,and of course=20
we cannot do that without first analyzing the victories and failures of =
our fathers' generation.That,in addition to identifying the tasks that =
we the present generation must perform before any talk of development =
could start.

So,as a development engineer, could you please explain to us some of the =
systemic or developmental hurdles that must be overcome in the Gambia =
before it could be able to provide the most basic necessities of life =
for itself,let alone be something that remotely resembles the =
merchantile efficiency of Singapore.

And thanks for your piece!

Regards Basss!
=09

----------
From: The Gambia-L shadow list[SMTP:gambia-l@commit.gm]
Sent: 02 =D4=DA=C8=C7=E4, 1997 1:38
To: GAMBIA-L: The Gambia and Related Issues Mailing List
Subject: re: Development of subsaharan africa

This is forwarded from "Pa Musa Jallow" <pmj@commit.gm>
(pmj@commit.gm)




------------------------------

Date: Sat, 02 Aug 1997 12:46:20 -0400
From: "Moe S. Jallow" <mjallow@sct.edu>
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Test: don't look!
Message-ID: <3.0.1.32.19970802124620.0069aa70@150.1.15.80>
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Just testing.

-Moe


------------------------------

Date: Sat, 2 Aug 1997 21:20:20 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: (Fwd): UNITED NATIONS: UNDP Unveils Bid to
Message-ID: <19970802202208.AAA23436@LOCALNAME>

Copyright 1997 InterPress Service, all rights reserved.
Worldwide distribution via the APC networks.

*** 28-Jul-97 ***

Title: UNITED NATIONS: UNDP Unveils Bid to Promote Good Governance

UNITED NATIONS, Jul 28 (IPS) - The U.N. Development Programme
(UNDP) is mounting a 36-million-dollar effort it says will promote
promote good governance in developing countries.

The four-year pilot project - which will be evaluated at the
end and might then be expanded - will provide support for free
elections and efforts to strengthen judiciaries and the rule of
law, parliamentary accountability, press freedoms, the private
sector, and 'civil society' - or citizens' groups.

UNDP Administrator James Gustave Speth said the global
initiative will fund innovative approaches to good governance and
support activities carried out by civil organisations, the media,
human rights bodies, and parliaments.

''We believe that a strong polity is necessary for a strong
economy'', Speth told reporters here Monday.

However, he cautioned, it would be wrong to describe UNDP as
''the political arm of the United Nations.'' Rather, ''we are the
largest development arm of the United Nations,'' he said.

UNDP has long faced criticism and questions from the 132
members of the 'Group of 77' bloc of developing nations over
allegations it sought to interfere in sovereign political matters. He
was quick to add that the initiative, launched here Monday, is in
response to demands from developing countries.

''Sustainable human development will not be possible without
strong, effective and capable governance'', Speth said, adding:
''We are experiencing a huge demand for our services in these
areas.''

The agency has set aside some 35 percent of its current budget
for good governance, up from 14 percent in 1994-1995. In recent
years, the annual budget has averaged 900 million dollars.

Speth's announcement coincided with the opening here Monday of
a three-day International Conference on Governance, which brought
together more than 1,000 government and elected officials,
representatives of non-governmental organisations (NGOs),
businesspeople, and members of the press.

On the agenda are issues relating to democratisation,
corruption, women's rights, free and fair elections, human rights
protections, and decentralisation.

In his opening address, Secretary-General Kofi Annan said the
United Nations is fully engaged in efforts to improve governance
around the world.

''The number of requests for assistance has grown exponentially
in recent years, reflecting the recognition by member states that good
governance is indispensable for building peaceful, prosperous and
democratic societies'', he said.

Asked if UNDP was backing the concept of homogeneity in all
governments, Speth said his organisation supports ''home grown
varieties of good governance.''

''Every country has to find its own path to good governance. We
are not trying to transplant Western-style democracies into
developing countries,'' Speth noted.

Indeed, ''there are also many failures of good governance in
rich countries'', he added - without singling out any of them.

Since 1992, the United Nations has provided financial and
logistical assistance, as well as monitors, for elections in 71
countries. UNDP has been involved in most of these operations.

Last year, at the request of the Bangladeshi government, UNDP
sponsored a range of television and radio spots, short films, and folk
cultural shows in villages and bazaars, aimed at educating voters
about then-upcoming elections.

Earlier this year, Speth argued his agency's work had resulted
in ''a 73 percent voter turnout, 33 percent more than in the 1991
elections, as well as a significant increase in the number of women
voters in the elections, which were declared free and fair''.

As part of the voter education programme, UNDP also produced
and distributed more than 50,000 manuals on the elections and
coordinated a record number of international observers.

''UNDP's most important contribution, in my opinion, lies not
facilitating the electoral process itself but rather in the more
long-term benefits: for democracy in Bangladesh, voter education
and information, training of officials and networking of NGOs,''
he said.

''This is one instance of deepening democracy,'' Speth said,
adding that such actions should also ensure that national
institutions in these countries are participatory, accountable and
based on the rule of law. (END/IPS/td/aa/97)


Origin: Washington/UNITED NATIONS/
----

[c] 1997, InterPress Third World News Agency (IPS)
All rights reserved


------------------------------

Date: Sat, 2 Aug 1997 21:20:20 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: (Fwd): IPS DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN / AFRICA:
Message-ID: <19970802202208.AAB23436@LOCALNAME>


Copyright 1997 InterPress Service, all rights reserved.
Worldwide distribution via the APC networks.

*** 26-Jul-97 ***

Title: IPS DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN / AFRICA: Using Information To Save
Lives

By Lewis Machipisa

HARARE, Jul 22 (IPS) - Health is a Cinderella sector in many
African nations: medical centres, often in various stages of
disrepair, have few drugs and some of their broken-down equipment is
not replaced since there is not enough money for that.

Not that there are no resources, but these tend to be diverted
from social sectors such as health to other more ''productive''
areas.

''As a result most people now go to traditional doctors where
some get fake medicine and more and more people are dying,'' says
Victor Adefela, communications consultant at the World Health
Organisation's Regional Office for Africa (WHO-AFRO).

Each year, one million Africans, mostly children under the age
of five, die of malaria or a combination of malaria and other
diseases. Another 800,000 or so die annually from diarrhoea and
dehydration, the WHO estimates.

''But we know some of these diseases could be prevented if
information about them and how to prevent and treat them was
available,'' said Adefela.

Given the enormity of Africa's health problems and the shortage
of rsources for the sector, the importance of information and
communication as a primary health care intervention tool has
become greater, according to WHO and African health officials.

''Many of the health problems facing Zimbabwe and other African
countries today can be prevented or controlled if individuals have
information on what to do and are constantly reminded and motivated to
do them,'' according to Felicity Zawaira, principal medical director
in the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare in Zimbabwe.

Giving an example of how valuable such information is, Adefela
said: ''The poorest African can spread AIDS but if he can use a
condom he can save more than 10,000 U.S. dollars that an AIDS
patient needs a year.''

But the availability of health information is severely limited
in Africa, and this led the World Bank and the WHO to bring
together some 30 health information and promotion officers in
Harare to discuss ways to improve its dissemination.

''It is highly desirable to have a corps of professionals who
have the appropriate training, orientation and facilities and
whose duty is to inform and educate the people all the time on how to
prevent diseases and promote their health,'' Zawaira told participants
at the Jul. 22-26 meeting.

An information package introduced at the meeting is to be
distributed to medil centres throughout Africa. It provides
answers to questions such as: what is a particular disease? what
are the signs that someone has it? what are its causes? what are
its effects on a person? if someone has it, how can other people
help? and how can people prevent the disease?

The package, written in simple language, contains information
on 11 common ailments: malaria, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, diarrhoeal
diseases, pneumonia, diabetes, artery and heart diseases, red eyes,
measles, poliomyelitis, and tetanus.

''It cuts out medical jargon and removes the mystery
surrounding the diseases, thus bridging the gap between those who have
the information needed to cope with health problems and those who need
it,'' said Ebrahim Samba, WHO-AFRO's Regional Director, who launched
information pack.

Titled 'Coping With Common Diseases', it is the first in a
series of multi-media health information packages the WHO is
putting out as part of a 1996-2000 Plan of Action.

''In a continent where people are now forced to treat about 60
percent of illnesses at home because of financial difficulties,
the information package should be of immense benefit to the
majority of the population,'' said Samba.

According to a WHO background paper, the deteriorating health
situation in Africa has sharply increased public need and demand
for information on health. This, it notes, ''calls for new
orientations, approaches and skills on the part of those involved in
health information and promotion activities.''

Africa urgently needs to ''remove the health information from
books and shelves and take it to the rural people who need it,''
said Akin Fatoyinbo, Communications Adviser of the World Bank in
Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. ''Health is a pre-condition to everything.
Information is available in tonnes of books but many of our people are
not using it.

''Ten years ago, information on AIDS was available but most of
our people did not have it. Today people in the productive sectors of
our countries are dying as a result of this ignorance. This could have
been avoided had the information been available to people who need
it.''

''They say where ignorance is bliss, it's folly to be wise, but
ignorance is a killer,'' added Fatoyinbo. ''We have to systemise
the transmission of health information in language that people can
understand and can deal with.''

This is the idea behind the new information package, according
to Adefela: ''We have selected the most common but most deadly
diseases and the information is in very simple language ...
Teachers should be able to interpret it to their students. School
children should be able to read it to their illiterate grandmothers.''
(end/ips/lm/kb/97)


Origin: Amsterdam/IPS DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN / AFRICA/
----

[c] 1997, InterPress Third World News Agency (IPS)
All rights reserved


------------------------------

Date: Sat, 2 Aug 1997 21:20:21 +0200
From: momodou.camara@post3.tele.dk (Camara, Momodou)
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: (Fwd): HEALTH: U.N. to Ban Smoking in its
Message-ID: <19970802202208.AAC23436@LOCALNAME>

Copyright 1997 InterPress Service, all rights reserved.
Worldwide distribution via the APC networks.

*** 27-Jul-97 ***

Title: HEALTH: U.N. to Ban Smoking in its Own Backyard

By Thalif Deen

UNITED NATIONS, Jul 27 (IPS) - The United Nations, which has
issued several critical reports on tobacco addiction worldwide, is
under U.S. pressure to practice what it preaches.

'' The United States commends and strongly supports Secretary-
General (Kofi Annan's) initiative to move towards a ban on smoking in
all U.N. buildings by the end of 1997,'' U.S. envoy Seth Winnick told
a recent meeting of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).

Winnick said the best way for the United Nations to send the
proper global message on tobacco is by setting an example of its
own.

The United States, he said, was pleased that several U.N.
bodies, including the World Health Organisation (WHO), the U.N.
Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the U.N. Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), have all taken strong action against
tobacco addiction.

''We support continuation and augmentation of these activities
with a view to increase public awareness on global scale, of the
public health risks associated with tobacco consumption,'' Winnick
said.

Since smoking is a sensitive issue among the 185 member states,
the U.N. Secretariat in New York only ''discourages'' smoking, as
evidenced by signs all over the building.

There is no outright ban at the U.N. headquarters, although in
New York city smoking is outlawed in all public places. But since the
United Nations is international diplomatic territory, New York city
laws do not apply to the world body.

Meanwhile, the United States has pledged its supports for a
proposed Framework Convention for Tobacco Control which the world body
is expected to take up later this year. The Convention, among other
things, seeks to protect young people from smoking and weaning them
away from tobacco addiction.

UNICEF already has called for a global ban on smoking and is
backing a comprehensive, long-term strategy to combat tobacco,
particularly among children in the developing world.

''Given the tobacco industry's increasing focus on developing
country sales, the need for action is more pressing than ever,''
says UNICEF Executive Director Carol Bellamy.

Bellamy points out that an estimated 300 million of today's
children and teenagers will eventually die of tobacco-related
illness, a third of them in developing countries. The total is
projected to increase significantly within 30 years, with the
proportion of Third World deaths rising to two-thirds.

Bellamy complained that the marketing of tobacco products is
underming UNICEF's efforts to save the lives of millions of
children annually from preventable diseases.

According to figures released by the U.S. Federal Trade
Commission, the tobacco industry spent a hefty 4.83 billion
dollars on domestic advertising and promotions in 1994: up from
361 million dollars in 1970.

The New York Times reported recently that the surge in teenage
smoking in the U.S. in the 1990s coincided with a sharp expansion by
tobacco companies in giveaways of items like T-shirts in return for
coupons accumulated by buying cigarettes.

According to UNICEF, medical researchers have established clear
links between smoking in the home and the incidence of acute
respiratory infections and asthma in children exposed to second-
hand tobacco smoke.

''Acute respiratory infections already kill four million out of
the 12 million children under five who die each year in developing
countries,'' Bellamy said. ''Without across-the-board action to curb
smoking, those numbers are likely to rise in direct proportion to the
global marketing activities of the tobacco industry.''

Bellamy has called for the need for prohibitions on the sale of
tobacco to minors; greatly increased taxation of tobacco products; and
intensified efforts to make the public aware of the addictive
qualities of nicotine and the overall dangers of smoking.

Other restrictions under discussion include a requirement that
U.S.-based tobacco companies not market tobacco products to non-
smoking women and children, or any non-smoking population anywhere in
the world.

As part of its review of a recent 368 billion dollar settlement
with U.S. tobacco companies, the United States is examining how
tobacco companies sell cigarettes overseas. U.S. health officials have
expressed concerns that tobacco companies may aggressively market
their products in developing nations in order to compensate the
setbacks in the United States which is taking an increasingly tough
stand against smoking.

''I am going to fight very, very hard to make sure these
multinational tobacco companies don't target kids in Bangladesh
and Bangkok...'' says U.S. Senator Ron Wyden who is a leading
opponent of the tobacco industry. (END/IPS/td/97)


Origin: Washington/HEALTH/
----

[c] 1997, InterPress Third World News Agency (IPS)
All rights reserved



------------------------------

Date: Sat, 2 Aug 1997 17:22:13 -0400 (EDT)
From: MJawara@aol.com
To: Gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Fwd: Summer Jam
Message-ID: <970802172213_1214246227@emout05.mail.aol.com>


---------------------
Forwarded message:
Subj: Summer Jam
Date: 97-08-02 17:18:57 EDT
From: MJawara
To: gambia-1@u.washington.edu

The Gambian Support Group cordially invites you to a fundraising party on
saturday August 30 ( Labor Day Weekend ) at the Marriott Hotel ( Washington
Ballroom ) in Gaithersburg, Maryland.Complimentary drinks and hors d'oeuvres
will be provided in the Executive Lounge.
Music will be provided by DJ SHAKI & RHYTHM KING PRODUCTION.
$10.00 (COVER CHARGE )
Proper Attire Required.
D'ont miss an evening of great entertaiment and ambiance.
DIRECTIONS : Take I - 495 West to 270 North.Take Exit 9B at Sam Eig Highway
West.Then turn left onto Fields Road, and left again onto Rio Blvd.; which
becomes Washington Blvd.Pass the Rio Entertaiment complex and turn left into
the Hotel entrance.

------------------------------

Date: Sun, 3 Aug 1997 03:02:10 +0100
From: "The Gambia-L shadow list" <gambia-l@commit.gm>
To: "gambia-l" <gambia-l@u.washington.edu>
Cc: "Pico" <samba1@juno.com>
Subject: Re: Development of subsaharan Africa
Message-ID: <B0000002834@south.commit.gm>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit

This is forwarded from "Pa Musa Jallow" <pmj@commit.gm>
(pmj@commit.gm)


How To develop from here (after a generation of independence) ?

People & Bass in particular

I want start by recapping..My dad is going 69..date of birth Oct. 14th 1929
at Bakau Wassulungkunda..in 1965 he was given the OBE by the Colonial
government as then one of the best administrators...to this day..he still
cannot get to memorise the Gambian National Anthem..which was invented in
front of him..and he still remembers though..God Save the King and later
the Queen..where the Royal family spent their Summers ..Balmoral or Winsor
or wherever..as kids..these poor black barefooted and raggamufffin Africans
were taught by colonial masters and teachers this crap; they saw pictures
of the royal kids and they see their own "royal kids" the kids of the
chiefs and alkalos (poor, barefoot and raggamuffin like themselves) and
drew up their own conclusion..I mean the whites were better and they had to
be better..imagine how these powerful perceptions were shaped..
then came Hitler and his drive to colonise Europe..(no apologies for him in
the same
historical context..looking and cause and effects..Hitler tried to do
Europe what Europe did to Africa..whether it is good or bad is another
context)
Hitler and Europe's war to survive created the opening that gave wind to
the change..Winds of Change 1..and Africa's independence in the 1960s..for
the first time africans saw whites crying and dying just like regular
humans ..all the mastery and bravado forgotten in the fight for
survival..appeals to join the fight for freedom..their freedom..after the
war..these African soldiers spearheaded the struggle for change and were
massacred in Camp Thiaroye (Senegal) and Camp Burma ?? in Accra Ghana and
many other colonies...
Anyway the ineveitable change came and so came Independence..our leaders
were the same poor brainwashed kids..they knew that they like any other
humans had the right to determine their own destinies but did they know
anything else..their training in rudimentary modern government or even
democratic government was minimal..hence the great experiment..how to
accomodate long oppressed demands for power and authority by traditional
rulers under colonial rule..who thought that now the rulers had black faces
they could get everything back..this did not happen..the new
rulers..(emphasis on rulers) maintained all the form, structure and
vestiges of the colonial government..which at the last minute like in
HongKong discovered DEMOCRACY..an new unrestricted and unfettered kind that
exists nowhere else and added to the mix that was already potentially
explosive due to the many different expectations..the colonial
servants..civil servants thought they could now enjoy all the rights and
priviledges of their former masters and the traditionalists who wanted to
reverse a humiliating 100 years or 200 ..and get back what they think their
ancestors had..
this mix with the continued intervention and meddling of Western
governments and their long arms..the CIA, KGB, the IMF and World bank and
the ODA and AID etc..ensured that Africans had
minimal control and oversight over their destinies..add to this the lack of
qualified and competent leaders..for a modern nation to develop..you
required equally as much..Educators, Politicians, Engneers, Doctors.
Lawyers, Farmers and an Informed Citizenry etc..the emphasis is on equally.
In the first phase..we lacked this..in the second phase we do have some of
this..but the system has to be reformed to allow us to be able to fully
utilize our potential.
What I am trying to prove is that the Will to develop our nations was there
but the capacity was lacking..why and who to blame for this incapacity is a
question we can all answer for ourselves..I personally do not expect
"someone" who enslaved me and trieds to prove scientifically, religiously
or otherwise that my and mine were subhuman or 2/3 human as in the US would
automatically transform and have my best interests at heart..I will count
on me and depend on me to define my own best interest and seek it..From
slavery to colonialism/apartheid/segregation to independence/eqality before
the law now onwards to full human rights in fact and in law
30 years later..here we are. WIND OF CHANGE II
To answer the question re: the system anomalies and hurdles we face in our
struggle to develop..
I say it is foremost ATTITUDE..for so long we have been told why we
cannot..now we need to say why we can..after 3 years working in The
Gambia..my biggest problem has been yeh but it won't work or happen because
of this and that..if we expend half the Energy of being negative to finding
ways of making it work ..IT WILL WORK..
How do you change the ATTITUDE..EDUCATION and TRAINING

Second is the DEPENDENCY Syndrome..first expatriates had be forced on us
through loan or aid conditions..they still are but now we ask for
consultants..and we gladly pay for them..we lost the confidence to do and
rely on ourselves..I am not saying that we do not require CONSULTANTS but
not all the time and not for everything and HOW COST EFFECTIVE..PAYING A
WHITE CONSULTANT D2-3 million to solve a D1.0 million problem

as an Engineer in the US I could have made Entry position $28,000 per annum
and I make $2700 per annum in The Gambia (10% ).my white consultant
counterpart makes $200-250,000 per annum in The Gambia..and he would have
made at most $40,000 per annum in the West..their CV s often include
falsifications but the powers-that be with all their complexes can and will
never see through this..again I am not saying that some Consultants are not
worth this..but do they produce this much ..the answer from my experience
is NOT by a dime..so the complexes of yesteryears still haunt and exact a
price..

but to the question do we need CONSULTANTS..the answer is YES..because the
advice and expertise that will not be accepted from me because I am BLACK
is taken as GOSPEL TRUTH from the WHITE consultant so now to be EFFECTIVE
at my work in MY COUNTRY..I better suck up or be extremely ACCOMODATING to
the TOUBAB CONSULTANT whose RECOMMENDATIONS can MAKE or BREAK me..
note also that our society is very age-based and RESPECT goes with AGE not
KNOWLEDGE or TRAINING or even sometimes POSITION..the only really trained
and competent AFRICANS tend to be younger and of the POST INDEPENDENCE
generation.. so our attempts to try to effect CHANGE are often met with
...YOU ARE YOUNG AND YOU DO NOT KNOW..YOU HAVE NO EXPERIENCE..but times have
changed so much and so FAST..
In the US, a presenter said once..that before if you go to a Hospital you
try to get an older doctor with experience..now you try to get the younger
ones with all the latest technology at their fingertips..that is what has
changed..the Amount and Access to Information..
To develop..Africa has to tap into this revolution and it is well
poised..about 60-70% of Africa's population is aged under 30 years witha
good 50% under 21..that means that there is enormous potential untapped..
we will not develop the TRADITIONAL way ..we will develop in a RADICAL
way..in The Gambia..GAMTEL was the first shot in the Technology revolution
no part of the country is remote..news and information can be transmitted
in minutes and seconds..the next step is ACCESS..I found out in The Gambia
that the explosion in Tourism and Trade..re: the re-export trade was due to
individuals not Government..in Africa..government is still a minor force
and mostly a HINDRANCE to the people..still a colonial master ..taxing and
leaching off the people..in the Gambia in 1967 we produced 120,000 tonnes
of groundnuts..then Govt. got smart and intervened with new marketing
policies..GPMB and NTC and Gambia Commercial & Development Bank..then
everything went down ..now in 1996..we had about 20,000 tonnes and a lot of
heavily indebted farmers..it is good to note that a lot of multi-million
dalasi consultants came and left in the process..this is the story all over
Africa..it should be noted that all over the world.civil and public
servants are noted for lower productivity and salaries than their private
sector counterparts..Singapore was an exception until lately..in Africa
...civil servants are completely in charge..the results we all know very
well..

I will stop here for now and next I will comment on how to reduce
Government and enhance the productive base..it is good that the Gambia
Govt. employs only 14,000 people about 1.5% of the population..with less
barriers and regulations and more incentives..remove the ban on
telecommunications..i.e. remove Gamtel's monopoly.let Gamtel compete with
other servers..remove UHC's..(formerly GUC) monopoly on Utilities
services..allow other investor-developers, regulate and monitor, give
minimum wage criteria, enforce labour laws, make simple tax rules and even
simpler business registration..make it easier for banks and credit
facilities to open..the lack of competition in the service and banking
industries is one of Africa's biggest development obstacles..the African
consumer almost has no choice..it is common here for a trader or
supermarket to ask a buyer to take it or leave it..in Europe and else
where..banks beg you to take out loans..in africa..you beg.. Standard Bank
in The Gambia recenly increased its minimum amount for a Savings Account
from I think D2000 to D5000 and proceeded to drop customers that could not
make this minimum..a bank driving clients away and it also instituted a
D500 overdraft fee..for any amount of overdraft despite the fact that a
customer pays 10% on the Overdraft a month..a cumulative interest of 120%
per annum..USURY not BANKING..unless there is CHOICE..this will not
change..Government must gear its efforts in getting us CHOICE in Services
& Goods and the Quality of Services & Goods..but GOVT. should not try to
provide all the SERVICES and GOODS..this has failed everywhere and will
continue to FAIL..I am again not advocating the privatisation of Gamtel and
UHC etc..we have experienced that farce but GAMTEL and UHC etc..should be
allowed to face COMPETITION..in fact anti-monopoly laws should be
legislated..
Bye for now and all comments invited.. the thrust of my argument is we
still pay the price of the colonial education of the 1950s..there are
universities in UK specializing in giving third worlders and Africans in
particular Masters degrees in 2 years flat..then of course go home.
Peace
pmj

------------------------------

Date: Sun, 3 Aug 1997 14:56:41 +0900 (JST)
From: binta@iuj.ac.jp
To: gambia-l@u.washington.edu
Subject: Re: Development of subsaharan Africa
Message-ID: <199708030553.OAA29963@mlsv.iuj.ac.jp>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; CHARSET=US-ASCII

Mr. PMJallow,

Thanks for your comments on some very important issues. however, I am
very much interested in the last part of your this last article that
touches on the liberalisation of the utilities and telecommunications
sectors in the Gambia. I guess you will elaborate on these.

You also talked about the award of two-year master degrees to Africans
by British institutions . What do you mean by this? It seems I am
a little confused.

Lamin.

------------------------------

End of GAMBIA-L Digest 79
*************************
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